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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the three structures in the carotid sheath?
internal jugular vein (lateral)
common carotid artery (medial)
vagus nerve (posterior)
in most cases, what supplies the SA and AV nodes?
80% of the time, what supplies the inferior portion of the LV via the PD artery?
RCA (right dominant)
when do the coronary arteries fill?
during diastole
what supplies the anterior interventricular septum?
what is the most posterior part of the heart? enlargment can cause what?
left atrium; dysphagia
what artery gives off large obtuse marginal branches that supply the lateral and posterior walls of the LV?
what supplies the anterior 2/3 of IV septum, apical portion of anterior papillary muscle, and the anterior surface of the LV?
where does the RCA travel?
in the right AV groove
what supplies the inferior and posterior wals of the ventricles and the posterior 1/3 of the IV septum?
posterior descending (typically a branch of RCA)
Cardiac output = ?
stroke volume x heart rate
what is the Fick principle?
CO = rate of O2 consumption/ (arterial O2 content - venous O2 content)
how do you calculate mean arterial pressure?
also: 1/3systolic + 2/3diastolic
pulse pressure = ?
systolic - diastolic
(approximates stroke volume)
stroke volume = ?
what variables affect stroke volume?
contractility, afterload, and preload - SV CAP
what effect does increased intracellular calcium have on contractility and SV?
increases contractility and SV
how does decreased extracellular sodium affect contractility and SV?
increases contractility and SV
5 things that decrease contractility and SV?
1. B1 blockade
2. heart failure
3. acidosis
4. hypoxia/hypercapnea
5. Ca2+ channel blockers
what effect does digitalis have on contractility and SV?
increases them
preload is equal to what volume?
end diastolic volume
afterload is equal to what presure?
systolic arterial pressure (proportional to peripheral resistance)
what effect do venous dilators (e.g. nitroglycerin) have?
decrease preload
what effect do vasodilators (e.g. hydralazine) have?
decrease afterload
this increases slightly with exercise, increased blood volume (overtransfusion), and excitement (sympathetics)
ejection fraction = ?
(index of ventricular contractility)
ejection fraction is normally greater than or equal to?
resistance is directly proportional to what?
resistance is inversely proportional to what?
radius to the 4th power
delta P = ?
Q x R
resistance = ?
driving pressure (delta P)/flow (Q)
what does viscosity mostly depend on? when is it increased?
incrased in polycythemia, hyperproteinemic states (e.g. multiple myeloma), hereditary spherocytosis
when in the cardiac cycle is O2 consumption highest?
isovolumetric contraction
this is the period between mitral valve closing and aortic valve opening
isovolumetric contraction
this is the period between aortic valve opening and closing
systolic ejection
this is the period between aortic valve closing and mitral vale opening
isovolumetric relaxation
when does rapid filling occur?
just after mitral valve opens
when does slow filling occur?
just before mitral valve closes
when is JVD seen?
right heart failure
what is cardiac muscle contraction dependent on?
extracellular calcium, which enters the cells during plateau of action potential and stimulates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (calcium-induced calcium release)
what is the plateau in the cardiac muscle action potential due to?
calcium influx
where does the pacemaker action potential occur?
SA and AV nodes
what accounts for the automaticity of the SA and AV nodes?
slow diastolic depolarization - membrane potential spontaneously depolarizes as Na+ conductance increases (funny channel)
what determines heart rate?
slope of phase 4 in the SA node
what are the peripheral chemoreceptors? what do they respond to?
carotid and aortic bodies - they respond to decreased (less than 60 mmHg)/increased PCO2, decreased pH of blood
what do central chemoreceptors respond to?
changes in pH and PCO2 of brain interstitial fluid, which in turn are influenced by arterial CO2
what does the aortic arch respond to? how does it transmit and to where?
responds to increased BP; transmits via vagus to medulla
how and to where does the carotid sinus transmit information?
via glossopharyngeal to the medulla
how do the central chemoreceptors respond to increased intracranial pressure?
hypertension (sympathetic response) and bradycardia (parasympathetic response)
what organ receives the larges share of systemic cardiac output?
what organ receivest eh highest blood flow per gramof tissue?
how does the heart meet increased O2 demand?
incrased coronary blood flow, not by increased extraction of O2
hypoxia in the pulmonary vasculature causes what?
vasoconstriction (unique because in other organs hypoxia causes vasodilation)
what are the local factors in the heart that determine autoregulaton?
O2, adenosine, NO
what are the local factors in the brain that determine autoregulation?
CO2 (pH)
how do the kidneys determine autoregulation?
myogenic and tuboglomerular feedback
what local factors determine autoregulation in skeletal muscle?
lactate, adenosine, K+
what is the most important mechanism for determining autoregulation in the skin?
sympathetic stimulation - temperature control
what is the effect of carotid massage?
incrases pressure on carotid artery - increasing stretch and leading to decreased HR
what is the ultimate consequence of baroreceptors sensing hypotension?
vasoconstriction, incrased HR, contractility, and BP - important in the response to severe hemorrhage