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289 Cards in this Set

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Pronunciation of Acetazolamide
a-seet-a-ZOLE-a-mide
What is the brand name of Acetazolamide?
Diamox TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Acetazolamide
Diuretic
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Acetazolamide?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
M.O.A of Acetazolamide?
Inhibits interconversion of carbonic acid and bicarbonate, increases renal NaHCO3 excretion, inhibits aqueous humor formation, causes metabolic acidosis (hyperchloremic)
Clinical Uses of Acetazolamide
Treatment of open-angle glaucoma, mountain sickness, metabolic alkalosis, alkalinization of urine
Special Considerations for Acetazolamide
Tolerance to diuretic effect develops rapidly
Adverse Effects of Acetazolamide
Paresthesia, urinary calculus formation [Ca(PO4)2]
Interactions of Acetazolamide
Decreases urinary excretion of weak bases
Similar Drugs to Acetazolamide
dorzolamide
Pronunciation of Adenosine
a-DEN-oh-seen
What is the brand name of Adenosine?
Adenocard TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Adenosine
Antiarrhythmic agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Adenosine?
Purine nucleoside
M.O.A of Adenosine?
Opens potassium channels and blocks calcium influx in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, slows atrioventricular conduction, increases atrioventricular refractory period
Special Considerations for Adenosine
Given as intravenous bolus
Adverse Effects of Adenosine
Can causes transient asystole
Interactions of Adenosine
Dipyridamole inhibits uptake and increases it effects
Similar Drugs to Adenosine
none
Pronunciation of Amiloride
a-MILL-oh-ride
What is the brand name of Amiloride?
Midamor TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Amiloride
Potassium-sparing diruretic
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Amiloride?
Epithelial sodium channel blocker
M.O.A of Amiloride?
Blocks Na+ channels in distal tubule and collecting duct, inhibits Na+ reabsorption and K+ excretion
Special Considerations for Amiloride
Often combined with thiazide or loop-acting diuretic
Clinical Uses of Amiloride
Prevention and treatment of hypokalemia
Adverse Effects of Amiloride
Hyperkalemia
Interactions of Amiloride
Additive effects on K+ with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and K+ supplements
Similar Drugs to Amiloride
triamterene
Pronunciation of Amiodarone
am-EE-oh-da-rone
What is the brand name of Amiodarone?
Cordarone TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Amiodarone
Antiarrhythmic agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Amiodarone?
Cardiac ion channel blocker
M.O.A of Amiodarone?
Blocks K+, Na+, Ca++ channels and adrenergic Beta-receptors, prolongs cardiac repolarization, increases refractory periods, slows heart rate, increases PR and QT intervals
Special Considerations for Amiodarone
Very long half-life
Clinical Uses of Amiodarone
Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, inculding ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia
Adverse Effects of Amiodarone
Hypo- and hyperthyroidism, photosensitivity, blue-gray skin discoloration, corneal microdeposits, pulmonary fibrosis
Interactions of Amiodarone
Increases levels of digoxin, class I antiarrhythmic agents, cyclosporine, phenytoin, theophyline
Similar Drugs to Amiodarone
none
Pronunciation of Amlodipine
am-LOE-di-peen
What is the brand name of Amlodipine?
Norvasc TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Amlodipine
Antihypertensive and antianginal agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Amlodipine?
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker
M.O.A of Amlodipine?
Blocks calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle, causing arteriolar vasodilation and increasing coronary blood flow
Clinical Uses of Amlodipine
Hypertension, angina pectoris
Special Considerations for Amlodipine
Long half lfe (30-50 hours)
Adverse Effects of Amlodipine
Headache, edema, hypotension
Interactions of Amlodipine
Levels and effects increased by concurrent ingestion of grapefruit juice
Similar Drugs to Amlodipine
felodipine, isradipine, nifedipine, nisoldipine
Pronunciation of Carvedilol
car-ve-DYE-lole
What is the brand name of Carvedilol?
Coreg TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Carvedilol
Antihypertensive and heart failure treatment
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Carvedilol?
Non-selective adrenergic receptor antagonist
M.O.A of Carvedilol?
Blocks beta-1, beta-2, and alpha-1 receptors, exerts antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects, causes vasodilation
Clinical Uses of Carvedilol
Heart Failure, decreases caridac remdoeling, disease progression, and mortality while improving symptoms, treatment of hypertension
Special Considerations for Carvedilol
Begin with low doses in heart failure and gradually increase
Adverse Effects of Carvedilol
Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, fatigue, bradycardia, worsening of heart failure if dose too high
Interactions of Carvedilol
Effects increased by antihypertensive drugs, digoxin (bradycardia), monamine oxidase inhibitors, effects decreased by rifampin, throid hormones, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, decreases cardiovascular effects of dopamine or dobutamine
Similar Drugs to Carvedilol
labetalol
Pronunciation of Clonidine
KLOE-ni-deen
What is the brand name of Clonidine?
Catapres TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Clonidine
Antihypertensive drug
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Clonidine?
Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonist
M.O.A of Clonidine?
Activates central alpha-2 receptors, decreases sympathetic outflow from vasomotor center, inhibits pain neurotransmission in spinal cord
Clinical Uses of Clonidine
Hypertension, cancer pain unresponsive to opioids (epidural), Opioid withdrawal
Special Considerations for Clonidine
7-day transdermal system available, abrupt withdrawal may cause severe rebound hypertension
Adverse Effects of Clonidine
Sedation and dry mouth
Interactions of Clonidine
Additive sedation with CNS depressants, additive hypotension with nitrates and antihypertensive drugs, antihypertensive effect decreased by tricyclic antidepressants and adrenergic receptor antagonists
Similar Drugs to Clonidine
ganfacine, METHYLDOPA
Pronunciation of Digoxin
dij-OX-in
What is the brand name of Digoxin?
Lanoxin TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Digoxin
Cardiac stimulant
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Digoxin?
Digitalis glycoside (cardenolide)
M.O.A of Digoxin?
Inhibits Na+, K+-ATPase, increases intracellular Ca++ and cardiac contractility, slows atrioventricular conduction and increases atrioventricular refractory period
Clinical Uses of Digoxin
Treatment of heart failure, used to slow ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation
Special Considerations for Digoxin
Serum levels are used to assess dosage or confirm toxicity and should be in the range of 0.5 to 2 nanograms/mL
Adverse Effects of Digoxin
Cardiac arrhythmias, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, yellow vision
Interactions of Digoxin
Amiodarone, quinidine, cyclosporine, diltiazem, and verapamil increase serum levels, diuretic-induced hypokalemia increases effects and toxicity
Similar Drugs to Digoxin
none
Pronunciation of Diltiazem
dill-TYE-a-zem
What is the brand name of Diltiazem?
Cardizem TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Diltiazem
Vasodilator, antiarryhthmic agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Diltiazem?
Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker
M.O.A of Diltiazem?
Blocks calcium channels in cardiac tissue and vascular smooth muscel, produces vasodilation, slows heart rate and conduction
Clinical Uses of Diltiazem
Hypertension, angina pectoris, supraventricular tachycardia
Special Considerations for Diltiazem
Usually well tolerated
Adverse Effects of Diltiazem
Dizziness, hypotension, peripheral edema, constipation, gingival hyperplasia
Interactions of Diltiazem
Increases levels of digoxin, cyclosporin, quinidine, carbamazepine, grapefruit juice increases serum levels
Similar Drugs to Diltiazem
verapamil
Pronunciation of Dofetilide
doe-FET-i-lide
What is the brand name of Dofetilide?
Tikosyn TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Dofetilide
Antiarrhythmic agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Dofetilide?
K+ channel blocker
M.O.A of Dofetilide?
Blocks delayed rectifier K+ in cardia tissue, slows repolarization and prolongs refractory periods, increases QT interval
Clinical Uses of Dofetilide
Prevention and treatment of atrial fibrillation and flutter
Special Considerations for Dofetilide
Monitor QT interval during initial dose titration and regularly thereafter
Adverse Effects of Dofetilide
QT prolongation, torsades de pointes
Interactions of Dofetilide
Cimetidine, trimethoprim, ketoconazole, amiloride, and triamterene can increase levels and risk of arrhythmia
Similar Drugs to Dofetilide
ibutilide
Pronunciation of Enalapril
ee-NAL-a-pril
What is the brand name of Enalapril?
Vasotec TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Enalapril
Antihypertensive agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Enalapril?
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
M.O.A of Enalapril?
Inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme and formation of angiotensin II, cause vasodilation, decreases aldosterone secretion, increases cardiac output, slows ventricular remodeling, and increases survival in heart failure
Clinical Uses of Enalapril
Hypertension, heart failure, post-myocardial infarction, decrease progression o diabetic nephropathy
Special Considerations for Enalapril
Inhibits bradykinin degradation, causing cough and angioedema
Adverse Effects of Enalapril
Hypotension, taste disturbances, dry cough
Interactions of Enalapril
Hyperkalemia if used with K+-sparring diuretics and K+ supplements
Similar Drugs to Enalapril
benasepril, captopril, fosinopril, lisinopril, moexipril, quinapril, ramipril, trandolapril
Pronunciation of Esmolol
ES-moe-lol
What is the brand name of Esmolol?
Brevibloc TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Esmolol
Antiarrhythmic agent (class II)
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Esmolol?
Selective adrenergic Beta-1 blocker
M.O.A of Esmolol?
Blocks sympathetic stimulation of sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, decreases heart rate, slows atrioventricular conduction, increases atrioventricular refractory period
Clinical Uses of Esmolol
Sinus tachycardia and supraventricular arrhythmias, particularlly during and after surgery
Special Considerations for Esmolol
Rapidly metabolized by plasma esteraase, very short half-life
Adverse Effects of Esmolol
Hypotension, bradycardia
Interactions of Esmolol
Additive hypotensive effect with nitrates and antihypertensive drugs, additive bradycardia with digoxin, decreases effects of dopamine and dobutamine, unoppposed alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation with epinephrine and related drugs
Similar Drugs to Esmolol
acebutolol, ATENOLOL, betaxolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol
Pronunciation of Fenoldopam
fen-OL-doe-pam
What is the brand name of Fenoldopam?
Corlopam TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Fenoldopam
Antihypertensive
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Fenoldopam?
Agonist at dopamine D1-like receptors
M.O.A of Fenoldopam?
Causes arteriolar vasodilation, inclduing afferent and efferent renal arterioles, increases renal blood flow
Clinical Uses of Fenoldopam
Hypertensive emergencies
Special Considerations for Fenoldopam
Rapid acting, short half-life of about 5 minutes
Adverse Effects of Fenoldopam
Can reduce serum potassium levels, which should be monitored
Interactions of Fenoldopam
Concurrent use with adrenergic beta blockers may cause excessive hypotension and should be avoided
Similar Drugs to Fenoldopam
none
Pronunciation of Furosemide
fur-OSE-e-mide
What is the brand name of Furosemide?
Lasix TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Furosemide
Loop-acting (high-ceiling) diuretic
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Furosemide?
Membrane ion transport inhibitor
M.O.A of Furosemide?
Inhibits Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter in ascending limb of loop of Henle, blocks sodium chloride reabsorption
Clinical Uses of Furosemide
Edema, heart failure, hypertension, hypercalcemia
Special Considerations for Furosemide
Increases Na+/K+ exchange in collecting duct, leading to hypokalemia, increases Ca++ excretion
Adverse Effects of Furosemide
Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperuricemia, hypomagnesemia
Interactions of Furosemide
Additive hypotension with antihypertensive drugs and nitrates, additive hypokalemia with corticosteroids, amphotericin B and thiazide diuretics, decreases lithium excretion, increases ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics
Similar Drugs to Furosemide
bumetanide, torsemide
Pronunciation of Hydralazine
hye-DRAL-a-zeen
What is the brand name of Hydralazine?
Apresoline TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Hydralazine
Antihypertensive, heart failure
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Hydralazine?
Vasodilator
M.O.A of Hydralazine?
Alters intracellular Ca++ metabolism, relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle, causing vasodilation, decreases cardiac afterload
Clinical Uses of Hydralazine
Moderate to severe hypertension, heart failure in combination with isosorbide dinitrate
Special Considerations for Hydralazine
Hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate is more effective than angiotensin inhibitors in black patients
Adverse Effects of Hydralazine
Edema, reflex tachycardia and myocardial ischemia, lupus syndrome
Interactions of Hydralazine
Combined with beta-blockers and diuretic to prevent tachycardia and fluid retention
Similar Drugs to Hydralazine
minoxidil
Pronunciation of Hydrochlorothiazide
hye-droe-klor-oh-THYE-a-zide
What is the brand name of Hydrochlorothiazide?
HydroDiuril TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Hydrochlorothiazide
Antihypertensive agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Hydrochlorothiazide?
Thiazide diuretic
M.O.A of Hydrochlorothiazide?
Inhibits NaCl transporter in distal tubule, increases excretion of Na+, K+, Cl-, decreases Ca++ excretion
Clinical Uses of Hydrochlorothiazide
Hypertension, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)
Special Considerations for Hydrochlorothiazide
Prevents cardiovascular complication of hypertension, including stroke and coronary artery disease
Adverse Effects of Hydrochlorothiazide
Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperuricemia and gout, increased insulin requirement
Interactions of Hydrochlorothiazide
Decreases excretion of litium, additive hypotension with antihypertensive drugs and nitrates, additive, hypokalemia with corticosteroids, amphotercin B, and loop diuretics
Similar Drugs to Hydrochlorothiazide
chlorthalidone, indapamide, metolazone
Pronunciation of Labetalol
la-BATE-a-lole
What is the brand name of Labetalol?
Normodyne or Trandate TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Labetalol
Antihypertensive
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Labetalol?
Adrenergic alpha and beta receptor antagonist
M.O.A of Labetalol?
Selective alpha-1 and nonselective beta-1 and beta-2 blocker
Clinical Uses of Labetalol
Hypertension
Special Considerations for Labetalol
Abrupt withdrawal may cause life-threatening hypertension, arrhythmias, or myocardial ischemia
Adverse Effects of Labetalol
Postural hypotension
Interactions of Labetalol
Additive hypotensive effect with nitrates and antihypertensive drugs, additive bradycardia with digoxin, decreases effects of dopamine and dobutamine, unopposed alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation with epinephrine and related drugs
Similar Drugs to Labetalol
carvedilol
Pronunciation of Mannitol
MAN-i-tol
What is the brand name of Mannitol?
Osmitrol TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Mannitol
Diuretic
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Mannitol?
Osmotic agent
M.O.A of Mannitol?
Osmotic attraction of edematous and occular fluid, filtered at glomerulus but not reabsorbed, increases elecrolyte excretion
Clinical Uses of Mannitol
Oliguric renal failure, increased intracranial pressure (cerebral edema), acute glaucoma, toxic overdose
Special Considerations for Mannitol
Transient Volume expansion after intravenous administration
Adverse Effects of Mannitol
Transient volume expansion, occasionally leading to pulmonary edema or heart failure, serum electrolyte imbalances
Interactions of Mannitol
None usually significant
Similar Drugs to Mannitol
glycerol
Pronunciation of Methyldopa
meth-ill-DOE-pa
What is the brand name of Methyldopa?
Aldomet TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Methyldopa
Antihypertensive agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Methyldopa?
Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonist
M.O.A of Methyldopa?
Converted to methyl-norepinephrine which activates central alpha-2 receptors, decreases sympathetic outflow from vasomotor center
Clinical Uses of Methyldopa
Hypertension
Special Considerations for Methyldopa
Can be used for hypertension in pregnanacy
Adverse Effects of Methyldopa
Postive direct Coombs' test, rarely hemolytic anemia
Interactions of Methyldopa
Tricyclic antidepressants, nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, phenothiazines can decrease effects
Similar Drugs to Methyldopa
CLONIDINE, guanfacine
Pronunciation of Minoxidil
min-OX-a-dil
What is the brand name of Minoxidil?
Rogaine TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Minoxidil
Antihypertensive/hair growth stimulant
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Minoxidil?
Vasodilator, K+ channel opener
M.O.A of Minoxidil?
Opens K+ channels in vascular smooth muscle, causing hyperpolarization, muscle relaxation, and vasodilation, stimulates resting hair follicles (telogen phase) to become growth follicles (anagen phase)
Clinical Uses of Minoxidil
Treatment of severe hypertension, topical treatment of alopecia
Special Considerations for Minoxidil
Effective as hair growth stimulant in bot men and women
Adverse Effects of Minoxidil
Systemic administration: reflex tachycardia, angina, pericarditis, edema, pulmonary hypertension, hypertrichosis (excessive hair growth)
Interactions of Minoxidil
None usually significant
Similar Drugs to Minoxidil
Hydralazine
Pronunciation of Nesiritide
ne-SEER-i-tide
What is the brand name of Nesiritide?
Natrecor TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Nesiritide
Heart failure treatment
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Nesiritide?
Recombinant human B-type natruretic peptide
M.O.A of Nesiritide?
Activates guanlylate cyclase receptor and increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate, dilates venous and arterial smooth muscle, decreases venous pressure, caridac preload, vascular congestion, and dyspnea
Clinical Uses of Nesiritide
Treatment of decompensated heart failure
Special Considerations for Nesiritide
Intravenous administration
Adverse Effects of Nesiritide
Hypotension
Interactions of Nesiritide
None reported
Similar Drugs to Nesiritide
none
Pronunciation of Nitroglycerin
nye-troe-GLI-ser-in
What is the brand name of Nitroglycerin?
Nitro-stat Transderm-Nitro TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Nitroglycerin
Antianginal agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Nitroglycerin?
Organic nitrate
M.O.A of Nitroglycerin?
releases nitric oxide in vascular smooth muscle, causing vasodilation, increasing coronary blood flow, and decreasing myocardial oxygen demand
Clinical Uses of Nitroglycerin
Prevention and treatment of angina pectoris
Special Considerations for Nitroglycerin
Rapidily absorbed after sublingual or lingual administration, short half-life
Adverse Effects of Nitroglycerin
Headache, hypotension, syncope, reflex tachycardia
Interactions of Nitroglycerin
Increases vasodilative effect of sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil
Similar Drugs to Nitroglycerin
amyl nitrite, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate, sodium nitrite
Pronunciation of Nitroprusside
nye-troe-PRUSS-ide
What is the brand name of Nitroprusside?
Nitropress TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Nitroprusside
Antihypertensive
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Nitroprusside?
Vasodilator
M.O.A of Nitroprusside?
Relaxes venous and arteriolar smooth muscle
Clinical Uses of Nitroprusside
Hypertensive crises, acute heart failure or cardiogenic shock, controlled hypotension during surger
Special Considerations for Nitroprusside
Metabolized to cyanide and thiocynate, treat toxicity with sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate
Adverse Effects of Nitroprusside
Cyanide toxicity, hypotension, headache
Interactions of Nitroprusside
Increased hypotensive effect with general anesthetics and antihypertensive drugs
Similar Drugs to Nitroprusside
none
Pronunciation of Propafenonone
proe-PAFF-e-none
What is the brand name of Propafenonone?
Rythmol TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Propafenonone
Antiarrhythmic agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Propafenonone?
Class I-c sodium channel blocker
M.O.A of Propafenonone?
blocks Na+ channels in cardiac tissue, slowing conduction and preventing re-entry, can increase PR QRS and QT duration
Clinical Uses of Propafenonone
Supraventricular and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias
Special Considerations for Propafenonone
Monitor ECG when starting therapy, most proarrhythmic events occur in first weeks of therapy
Adverse Effects of Propafenonone
Arrhythmia, gastrointestinal disturbances, dizziniess
Interactions of Propafenonone
Increases digoxin levels
Similar Drugs to Propafenonone
flecainide
Pronunciation of Quinidine
KWIN-i-deen
What is the brand name of Quinidine?
Quinidex Extentabs TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Quinidine
Antiarrhythmic agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Quinidine?
Class I-a sodium channel blocker
M.O.A of Quinidine?
Blocks Na+ and K+ channels in cardiac tissue, slowing conduction and increasing QRS and QT duration
Clinical Uses of Quinidine
Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias
Special Considerations for Quinidine
As the D-isomer of quinine, it can be administered intravenously for treating severely ill patients with malaria
Adverse Effects of Quinidine
Arrhythmia, blurred vision, tinnitus, photophobia (cinchonism), frequently diarrhea
Interactions of Quinidine
Increases digoxin levels, quinidine levels increased by amiodarone, cimetidine, diltiazem, verapamil, and grapefruit juice
Similar Drugs to Quinidine
disopyramide, procainamide
Pronunciation of Sotalol
SOE-ta-lole
What is the brand name of Sotalol?
Betapace TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Sotalol
Antiarrhythmic agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Sotalol?
Class III potassium channel blocker
M.O.A of Sotalol?
Blocks K+ channels in cardiac tissue, prolonging repolarization and increasing refractory period and QT interval, also blocks adrenergic beta receptors
Clinical Uses of Sotalol
Supraventricular and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias
Special Considerations for Sotalol
Increase dosing interval if creatinine clearance <60 mL/min
Adverse Effects of Sotalol
Arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes
Interactions of Sotalol
Effects increased by antihypertensive drugs and nitrates (hypertension), digoxin (bradycardia), and verapamil (myocardial depression), may decrease effects of beta-adrenergic bronchodilators, theophylline, dobutamine, and dopamine
Similar Drugs to Sotalol
None
Pronunciation of Spironolactone
speer-oh-no-LAK-tone
What is the brand name of Spironolactone?
Aldactone TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Spironolactone
Potassium-sparing diuretic
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Spironolactone?
Aldosterone antagonist
M.O.A of Spironolactone?
Blocks aldosterone receptors, increasing sodium excretion and decreasing potassium excretion
Clinical Uses of Spironolactone
Primary hyperaldosteronism, hypokalemia, heart failure, hypertension
Special Considerations for Spironolactone
Eplerenone causes fewer anti-androgenic effects such as gynecomastia
Adverse Effects of Spironolactone
Gynecomastia and impotence (males), hyperkalemia
Interactions of Spironolactone
Hyperkalemia if combined with angiotensin inhibitor and K+ supplements
Similar Drugs to Spironolactone
eplerenone
Pronunciation of Valsartan
val-SAR-tan
What is the brand name of Valsartan?
Diovan TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Valsartan
Antihypertensive
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Valsartan?
Angiotensin receptor antagonist
M.O.A of Valsartan?
Blocks angiotension II receptors invascular smooth muscle and adrenal cortex, causing vasodilation, and decreasing aldosterone secretion
Clinical Uses of Valsartan
Hypertension, heart failure, and nephropathy
Special Considerations for Valsartan
Causes less cough and angioedema than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
Adverse Effects of Valsartan
None are common
Interactions of Valsartan
Can cause hyperkalemia if combined with K+-sparring diuretic and K+ supplements
Similar Drugs to Valsartan
candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, losartan, telmisartan
Pronunciation of Verapamil
ver-AP-a-mil
What is the brand name of Verapamil?
Calan TM, Isoptin TM
What is the Therapeutic Class of Verapamil
Antihypertensive and antianginal agent
What is the Pharmacologic Class of Verapamil?
Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker
M.O.A of Verapamil?
Blocks calcium channels in cardiac tissue and vascular smooth muscle, produces vasodilation, slows heart rate and conduction, decreases cardiac contractility
Clinical Uses of Verapamil
Hypertension, angina pectoris, supraventricular tachycardia, prevention of migraine headache
Special Considerations for Verapamil
Suppresses cardiac contractility more than other calcium channel blockers
Adverse Effects of Verapamil
hypotension, peripheral edema, heart failure, constipation, gingival hyperplasia
Interactions of Verapamil
Increases levels of digoxin, cyclosporine, quinidine, carbamazepine, grapefruit juice increases serum levels
Similar Drugs to Verapamil
diltiazem