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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Location of MV
Left 4th rib
Location of TV
Right 6th rib
Location of PV
Left 3rd rib
Location of AV
Right 3rd IC space
MV is heard here
Left 5th IC (lateral)
TV is heard here
Lower left sternal border
PV is heard here
2nd-3rd left IC space
AV is heard here
2nd-3rd right IC space
s1 sound
MV or TV closing
s2 sound
PV or AV closing
Sound heard when rush of blood when MV opens
S3
blood forcibly hitting non-compliant ventricular wall makes this sound
S4
heard when AV opens
Ej sound
heard when MV opens
OS
heard when MV prolapses
Click
normal pressure in the aorta
120/80
normal pressure in the PA
25/10
normal pressure in the RA
0-4
normal pressure in the LV
120/10
normal pressure in the RV
25/4
normal pressure in the LA
8-10
CO . SVR
BP
Volume of blood pumped/time
CO
Volume of blood pumped/heart beat
Stroke volume
Number of heart beats/min
HR
Resistance to flow of blood exerted
by the vascular bed
SVR
SV . HR
CO
CO/BSA
Cardiac index
Three determinants of cardiac workload
Contractility
Heart rate
Wall tension
Fraction of blood in LV at the end of ventricular diastole
that is pumped from the heart during ventricular systole
Ejection fraction
Improves heart muscle contracting ability
Positive inotrope
Disrupts heart muscle contracting ability
Negative inotrope
Examples: Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Disopyramide
Negative inotrope
Examples: Digoxin, Dobutamine
Positive inotrope
At rest, the __ system predominates the SA node
parasympathetic
decreases heart rate & induces vasodilation
Stimulating baroreceptors
Platelets are produced within
bone marrow
Immature platelets
megakaryocytes
Platelet lifespan
8-12 days
Platelets are removed by
the spleen
Synthesis controlled by thrombopoietin
Platelets
Triggered by endothelial damage
Platelet adhesion
Results from plaque rupture
ACS (acute coronary syndrome)
Troponin -
unstable angina
Troponin +
NSTEMI
During pregnancy, CO __ and hematocrit __
increases, decreases
PP (pulse pressure)
SP – DP
Normal PP
30-40 mg Hg
↓SV ↑SVR
small, weak pulse
CHF
Hypovolemia
Severe AS
Constrictive pericardial disease
↓SV
severe cold exposure
↑SVR
↓Ao Compliance could be caused by
aging, atherosclerosis
Bisferiens pulse is seen with
AR
Hypertrophic CMP
Pulsus alternans is seen with
CHF
Bigeminal pulse is seen with
Premature contractions
Type of pulse observed with: Severe asthma attack
COPD
Pericardial tamponade
Paradoxical pulse
murmur due to a vascular abnormality
Bruit
humming vibration detected while palpating
Thrill
Large a wave in a JVP
TS
Hypertrophied RV
Gigantic a wave in a JVP
PAC
Complete heart block
No a wave in a JVP
Atrial fibrillation
c-v wave in a JVP
TR
Slow y descent in a JVP
TS
used for low-pitched sounds
Bell
used for high-pitched sounds
Diaphragm
S1 of increased intensity
Tachy, short PR
S1 of decreased intensity
HF, long PR, & MS
causes increased splitting
RBBB, TS
causes reversed splitting
LBBB, MS
inspiration has this effect on split
increase
s2, ↑P2:
Pulm HTN
s2, ↑A2:
HTN
s2, ↓P2:
PS, R-HF
s2, ↓A2:
AS, L-HF
s2, Fixed split
asd
s2, Paradoxical split
LBBB
s3
pregnancy, CHF
s4 on the left
CAD, HTN, AS
s4 on the right
Pulm HTN, PS
With AS or dilated Ao you would hear
AV Ej sound
With PS or dilated PA you would hear
PV Ej sound
Occurs after S1 and before S2
but closer to S2
systolic click
systolic click usually means
MVP
the click is delayed & less prominent when patient is
squatting (more blood in heart)
the click is most prominent when patient is
standing (blood leaves the heart)
murmur intensity scale
1-6, with 3 being normal or baseline
Inflammation of the pericardium would be heard as
sandpaper (friction rub)
squatting would increase this sound
↑ AS murmur
standing would make it easier to hear to diagnose
hyperCMP sounds
MVP
"bearing down" -increases vagal tone
Valsalva maneuver
you would use the Valsalva maneuver to help diganose
MVP
you would use __ to diagnose MR & AR
hand grips (increase SVR)
you would use __ to diagnose MS ansd AS or hyperCMP sounds
amyl nitrate (decreases SVR)