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### 25 Cards in this Set

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 Correlation Shows the extent to which the change in one factor relates to the change in another factor. A positive ________ occurs when an increase in one factor occurs with the increase in another factor. A negative ______________ occurs when the increase in one factor occurs with the decrease in another factor. Data Information that has been gathered. Data set Groups of similar data. Interjudge reliability Checking observational data by having more than one trained observer collect observations. Interval scale Measures the intervals or differences between data. Job analysis A detailed study of the job to determine the exact nature of the work, the quantity and quality of output that is expected, organizational aspects of the job, and necessary personal qualities such as leadership, judgment, tact, and the ability to cope with emergencies. Market analysis The systematic gathering, recording, and analyzing of data about marketing problems toward the goal of providing information useful in marketing decision making. Also known as market research. Mean The average, determined by totaling all the data and then dividing by the number of pieces of data. Median The middle score in a set of scores, or middle data in a set of data. Measures of central tendency Measures that show the average, the most common number, and the middle data (called the mean, median, and mode, respectively). Measures of variability Measures that show the extent to which production varies from one day to another. The common measures of variability are the range and standard deviation. Mode The most common score; often near the middle. Nominal scale Puts each piece of information into a category or class. Objective data Include factors such as the number of events; measures of time and money; and descriptive qualities like color, size, and shape. Ordinal scale Uses a single dimension like "most to least sales" to rank the data on the scales. Can be used best to show the relative quality based on the customer's perception. Probability The likelihood, or chance, of a certain event occurring Range In a set of data, the difference between the highest and lowest pieces of data. Ratio scale A special form of an interval scale that has zero as a starting point. Reliability The consistency and precision of a measure, test, instrument, performance, or other behavior. Sales analysis A thorough and detailed study of the company's sales records with the purpose of detecting marketing strengths and weaknesses. Standard deviation An index of variation that is sensitive to differences found in sets of data. Standard deviation is most useful when comparing two different data sets. Statistical significance A measure of the confidence that researchers have in their results. Subjective data Data that reflect the attitudes and feelings of customers about quality. Task analysis The process of breaking down work into its constituent elements. Validity The extent to which a measure actually measures what it is intended to measure.