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18 Cards in this Set

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Active listening
Form of listening that requires that the listener devote complete attention to the speaker and take responsibility for understanding the message.
Channels
A modality of communication, or the medium in which the message is sent, such as oral, verbal, or written form.
Communications
The successful transmission of a message between a source and a receiver.
Common ground
Shared interest, beliefs, or opinions among people or groups who disagree about most subjects. It includes the assumptions that we make about each other, about mutual interests, about shared values, and about awareness of individual interests.
Cooperative principle
The belief that someone speaking is making an honest attempt to be understood.
Decoding
The process in which a receiver determines how a message was encoded, why it was sent, and what to do with it once it is received. Requires listening or reading and placing the message in context.
Downward communication
Information flow from individuals at higher levels within an organization to those at lower levels.
Encoding
Putting information into a form or code that can be sent and understood by the receiver.
Feedback
Information about how a learner is performing; necessary for both learning and motivation.
Formal communication
Written or oral messages that are sent in the context of an official action or otherwise are presented as the directive of an office or officer of an organization or as following the directive or request of an officer.
Grapevine
An informal pattern of communication that moves in any direction, including managers and supervisors.
Informal communication
All the messages other than official directives or requests made in an organization.
Lateral communication
The exchange of information between peers or workers at the same organizational level. Also called horizontal communication.
Message
The specific physical form given to information so that it can be sent to a receiver.
Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication can be conveyed in both oral and written forms. It consists of gestures, body position, voice inflection, eye contact, the use of humor, confidence, and so on.
Receiver
The target of a message.
Upward communication
Messages flow from workers at lower levels to managers and workers at higher levels of an organizational structure.
Sender
Individual responsible for encoding a message in a manner than can be decoded by the receiver.