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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Trends in the incidence and death rates of cancer include the fact that

A. lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in men.
B. breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women.
C. a higher percentage of women than men have lung cancer.
D. African Americans have a higher death rate from cancer than whites.
D. African Americans have a higher death rate from cancer than whites.
Cancer is a name for a large group of diseases, all of which are characterized by

A. increasing differentiation of cells.
B. production of toxins that alter cells.
C. rapid, explosive proliferation of cells.
D. cell growth that escapes normal control.
D. cell growth that escapes normal control.
A characteristic of the stage of progression in the development of cancer is

A. oncogenic viral transformation of target cells.
B. a reversible steady growth facilitated by carcinogens.
C. a period of latency before clinical detection of cancer.
D. proliferation of cancer cells in spite of host control mechanisms.
D. proliferation of cancer cells in spite of host control mechanisms.
The primary protective role of the immune system related to malignant cells is

A. surveillance for cells with tumor-associated antigens.
B. binding with free antigen released by malignant cells.
C. production of blocking factors that immobilize cancer cells.
D. responding to a new set of antigenic determinants on cancer cells.
A. surveillance for cells with tumor-associated antigens.
The primary difference between benign and malignant neoplasms is the

A. rate of cell proliferation.
B. site of malignant tumor.
C. requirements for cellular nutrients.
D. characteristic of tissue invasiveness.
D. characteristic of tissue invasiveness.
Important nursing roles related to prevention and detection of cancer include

A. instructing people to eat low-fiber, refined-carbohydrate diets.
B. instructing persons on ways to increase capacity to cope with stress.
C. teaching people to have annual screening tests for all detectable cancer sites.
D. using people's natural fear of cancer to motivate changes in unhealthy lifestyles.
B. instructing persons on ways to increase capacity to cope with stress.
The goals of cancer treatment are based on the principle that

A. surgery is the single most effective treatment for cancer.
B. initial treatment is always directed toward cure of the cancer.
C. a combination of treatment modalities is effective for controlling many cancers.
D. although cancer cure is rare, quality of life can be increased with treatment modalities.
C. a combination of treatment modalities is effective for controlling many cancers
The nurse explains to a patient undergoing brachytherapy of the cervix that she

A. must undergo simulation to locate the treatment area.
B. requires the use of radioactive precautions during nursing care.
C. may experience desquamation of the skin on the abdomen and upper legs.
D. requires shielding of the ovaries during treatment to prevent ovarian damage.
B. requires the use of radioactive precautions during nursing care.
The most effective method of administering a chemotherapeutic agent that is a vesicant is to

A. give it orally.
B. give it intraarterially.
C. use an Ommaya reservoir.
D. use a central venous access device.
D. use a central venous access device.
Stomatitis, a common side effect of chemotherapeutic agents, occurs because the

A. site of the malignancy is near the oral cavity.
B. general health of the patient with cancer is poor.
C. chemotherapeutic drugs have an external, local, and irritating effect.
D. rapidly dividing cells of the mucous membranes of the mouth are being destroyed.
C. chemotherapeutic drugs have an external, local, and irritating effect.
The nurse teaches the patient receiving IL-2 about the drug based on the knowledge that this agent is administered primarily for the purpose of

A. stimulating the immune system.
B. inhibiting DNA and protein synthesis in tumor cells.
C. decreasing the antigenic expression of antigens on tumor cell surfaces.
D. preventing bone marrow suppression associated with chemotherapy administration.
A. stimulating the immune system.
The nurse counsels the patient receiving radiation therapy or chemotherapy that

A. effective birth control methods should be used for the rest of the patient's life.
B. if nausea and vomiting occur during treatment, the treatment plan will be modified.
C. following successful treatment a return to the person's previous functional level can be expected.
D. the cycle of fatigue-depression-fatigue that may occur during treatment can be reduced by restricting activity.
C. following successful treatment a return to the person's previous functional level can be expected.
An inappropriate nursing intervention to promote nutrition in the patient with cancer is

A. providing bland, pureed food because the person's taste sensation is altered.
B. providing increased protein for normal cell recovery and immune system function.
C. encouraging the patient to eat a high-calorie, high-protein snack every few hours to prevent weight loss.
D. alerting the physician that nutritional supplements may be needed when the patient has a 10 lb weight loss.
A. providing bland, pureed food because the person's taste sensation is altered.
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH) that occurs in certain types of cancer is primarily due to

A. autoimmune reaction.
B. gram-negative septicemia.
C. invasiveness of cancer cells.
D. ectopic hormonal production.
D. ectopic hormonal production.
A patient has recently been diagnosed with early stages of breast cancer. Which of the following is most appropriate for the nurse to focus on?

A. maintaining patient's hope
B. preparing a will and advance directives
C. discussing replacement child care for patient's children
D. discussing the patient's past experiences with her grandmother's cancer
A. maintaining patient's hope
The leading cause of cancer death in both men and women:

a. lung cancer
b. colorectal cancer
c. leukemias and lymphomas
d. reproductive cancers
a. lung cancer
The defect in cellular proliferation that occurs in the development of cancer involves:

a. a rate of cell proliferation that is more rapid than that of normal cells

b. shortened phases of cell life cycles w/ occasional skipping of G1 or S phases

c. rearrangement of stem cell RNA tha causes abnormal cellular protein synthesis

d. indiscriminate and continuous proliferation of cells with loss of contact inhibition.
d. indiscriminate and continuous proliferation of cells with loss of contact inhibition.
The presence of carcinoembryonic agents (CEA's) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) on cell membranes is indicative that cells have:

a. shifted to more immature metabolic pathways and functions.

b. spread from areas of original development to different body tissues

c. become more differentiated as a result of repression of embryonic functions

d. produced abnormal toxins or chemical that indicate abnormal cellular function.
a. shifted to more immature metabolic pathways and functions.
The stage of cancer development in which there is an irreversible alteration in the cell's DNA is:

a. initiation
b. progression
c. promotion
a. initiation
Tobacco smoke is a complete carcinogen that is capable of both: ______
Initiation and promotion
The promotion stage of cancer is characterized by the __________ proliferation of altered, initiated cells.
REVERSABLE
Obesity is an example of :

a. initiator
b. promoting factor
c. progressor
b. promoting factor
Latency of cancer is the same as:__________ & ____________
Initiation & Promotion
The definitive method to Dx cancer is:

a. x-ray
b. biopsy
c. CT scan
d. presence of oncofetal antigens
b. biopsy
Normal tissues that may manifest early, acute responses to radiation therapy include:

a. spleen and liver
b. kidney and nervous tissue
c. bone marrow and GI mucosa
d. hollow organs, stomach / bladder
c. bone marrow and GI mucosa
The rationale for treatment of cancer with radiation includes the knowledge that:

a. radiation damages cellular DNA only in abnormal cells

b. malignant cells respond to the effects of radiation because they more frequently go thru mitosis

c. damage to cells occur only during M and G2 phases of cell cycle

d. normal cells are able to repair radiation and do not have permanant damage
b. malignant cells respond to the effects of radiation because they more frequently go thru mitosis
A common side effect of radiation therapy that is not associated with the effect of radiation in the treatment field is:

a. fatigue
b. alopecia
c. skin rx
d. bone marrow suppression
a. fatigue
Chemotherapy for treatment of cancer would be most effective in:

a. small tumor of bone
b. young tumor of brain
c. large tumor in highly vascular area
d. malignant changes in hemopoietic cells.
d. malignant changes in hemopoietic cells.
Patient is scheduled to have placement fo a silastic right atrial catheter for admin of chemotherapy for breast cancer. When preparing the patient for the catheter insertion, the nurse explains that this method of admin:

a. decreases the risk for extravasion at the infusion site

b. reduces incidence of systemic side effects of drug

c. doesn't become occluded as peripherally inserted cath's can

d. allows continuous infusion of drug directly to area of tumor
a. decreases the risk for extravasion at the infusion site
When teaching pt with cancer about chemotherapy, the nurse should:

a. avoid telling patient about side effects to prevent anxiety

b. explain that antiemetics, antidiarrheals, and analgesics will be provided

c. assure the patient that the side effects from chemo are merely uncomfortable, not life threatening

d. inform patient that chemo-related alopecia is usually permanent
c. assure the patient that the side effects from chemo are merely uncomfortable, not life threatening
The late effects of chemothrapy and high-dose radiation may include:

a. 3rd space syndrome
b. persistent myelosuppression
c. chronic N&V
d. resistant secondary malignancies
d. resistant secondary malignancies
The primary use of biologic therapy in cancer treatment is to:

a. prevent fatigue
b. enhance or supplement the effects of the host's immune responses to tumor cells
c. depress immune system
d. protect normal rapidly reproducing cells of the GI
b. enhance or supplement the effects of the host's immune responses to tumor cells
A side effect common with biologic therapies is:

a. flulike syndrome
b. bone marrow suppresson
c. CNS defecit
d. N&V, diarrhea
a. flulike syndrome
To prevent the most frequent cause of death in patients undergoing radiation therapy and chemo for treatment of cancer, the nurse implements measures to:

a. prevent infection
b. maintain nutrition
c. monitor kidney function
d. control vomiting and diarrhea
a. prevent infection
An allogenic bone marrow transplant is considered as treatment for a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. The nurse explains that during this procedure:

a. there is no risk for graft-vs. host disease
b. bone marrow is obtained from a donor who has a HLA match with the patient
c. patient's bone marrow will be removed, treated, stored, and then reinfused
d. there is no need for post-transplant protective isolation
b. bone marrow is obtained from a donor who has a HLA match with the patient
During initial chemotherapy a patient with leukemia develops hyperkalemia and hyperuricemia. The nurse recognizes these symptoms as the oncologic emergency of:

a. hypercalcemia
b. 3rd space syndrome
c. tumor lysis syndrome
d. syndrome of inaapropriate ADH
c. tumor lysis syndrome
What are 6 factors that will assist a patient to cope positively with having cancer:
1. ability to cope with stressful events in the past.

2. Having a support system

3. Ability to express emotions and feelings

4. Older age - maturity

5. Feelings of control

6. Possibility of cure.