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202 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 roles of a personal trainer?
Teacher
Coach
Advisor
Supervisor
Supporter
What are the primary components of fitness?
Cardiorespiratory capacity
Muscular capacity
Flexibility
What are the 4 benefits of cardio training?
• Decreased resting HR
• Decreased risk of cardiovascular disease
• Improved endurance
• Increased stroke volume & cardiac output
What are the 3 components of muscular capacity?
• Muscular endurance
• Muscular strength
• Muscular power
What are 5 benefits of muscular training?
• Increased strength
• Improved muscular endurance
• Increased basal metabolic rate
• Improved joint strength
• Improved posture
What are 4 benefits of flexibility training?
• Decreased risk of injury
• Improved range of motion
• Improved bodily movements
• Improved posture
What are 4 benefits of improved body composition?
• Decreased risk of cardiovascular disease
• Improved basal metabolic rate
• Improved bodily function
• Improved BMI
What are the 7 secondary components of physical fitness?
Balance
Coordination
Agility
Reaction time
Speed
Power
Mental capability
What are the 9 principles of Can-Fit-Pro training?
FITT
Individualization
Specificity
Progressive Overload
Recovery
Structural Tolerance
All-around development
Reversibility
Maintenance
What are the 6 essential nutrients?
• Carbohydrates
• Fat
• Protein
• Vitamins
• Minerals
• Water
How many calories in a gram of carbohydrate?
4
What are the 3 types of fats/lipids?
• Triglycerides (represents 95% of fat we eat)
• Phospholipids
• Sterols
How many calories in a gram of fat?
9
How many calories in a gram of protein?
4
What are the two categories of vitamins?
Fat soluble
Water soluble
What is the daily recommended intake of water for both women and men?
Men: 3.7L/day Women: 2.7L/day
What does Bioenergetics mean?
The study of how energy flows in the human body.
Define energy.
The ability to do physical work.
Define homeostatis.
A state of stability or balance where all body functions occur easily and the demand for energy is comfortably met by the supply of available energy.
Define metabolism.
The sum of all chemical reactions in the body that either use or create energy.
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

A chemical compound made up of adenosine and three phosphate molecules.

= Adenosine - P ~ P ~ P
Name the two types of anaerobic metabolism.
• ATP-CP
• Glycolytic system
Name the two types of aerobic metabolism.
Aerobic Glycolysis
Fatty Acid Oxidation
How long does the ATP-CP system provide energy for?
Up to 10 seconds at maximal intensity.
How long does Anaerobic Glycolysis (Glycolitic System) provide energy for?
Up to 2 min. at maximal intensity.
What is the by-product of Anaerobic Glycolysis?
Lactic acid
Which aerobic energy system provides fuel for more than 2 minutes at moderate intensity?
Aerobic Glycolysis
What kind of exercise utilizes fuel during the Fatty Acid Oxidation process?
Low-intensity exercise
How many ATP are given during the ATP-CP process?
1 ATP
Which energy system gives 38 ATP?
Aerobic glycolisis
How many ATP are given during Fatty Acid Oxidation?
100
Which energy system delivers 2-3 ATP?
Anaerobic glycolisis.
When the aerobic system can no longer give ATP, the anaerobic systems kick in. What is this called?
The Lactate Threshold
What is Oxygen Deficit?
The volume of oxygen missing in the first few minutes of exercise
What does EPOC stand for?
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.

a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity intended to erase the body's "oxygen debt.
Name 3 components of the cardiovascular system?
1. Heart
2. Arteries
3. Veins
__________ take blood away from the heart and ___________ bring blood to the heart.
Arteries – take blood away from the heart.

Veins – bring blood to the heart

Hint: (a)rteries take blood (a)way
What does the cardiovascular system transport throughout the body?
blood
nutrients
oxygen
carbon dioxide
metabolic waste products
key chemical messengers (hormones)
Besides transporting blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, metabolic waste products, and hormones throughout the body, what ELSE does the cardiovascular system do?
Maintains the core temperature of the body.
Which side of the heart replaces CO2 with O2?
The right side.
The ______ side of the heart replaces CO2 with O2 and the _______ side disperses it.
The right side of the heart replaces CO2 with O2 and the left side disperses it.
The bottom part of the heart, that's sort of shaped like a heart consists of the left and right _____________.
Ventricles
Define blood pressure, please.
The result of blood being pumped out of the ventricles, exerting force against the arterial walls.
Average blood pressure is supposed to be 120/80. Which is the systolic, and which is the diastolic number?
systolic = 120
diastolic = 80
When the heart contracts, this represents the peak amount of pressure on the arteries. Which type of blood pressure is this?
Systolic
Diastolic blood pressure is when the heart expands. Is this putting more or less pressure on the arteries?
Less
Give me a "high" reading for blood pressure.
140/80
What's an average resting heart rate?
72 BPM
I'm 36. What's my Max HR rate?
Max HR = 220-36 = 184
What's the Max HR formula?
Max HR = 220 - age
Why is the Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) formula better than Max HR?
This calculation takes resting HR into account and calculates the number of beats you can increase your HR during exercise.

Takes into consideration current fitness level.
I'm 36 and my resting HR is 72 BPM.

Calculate my target HRR (Heart Rate Reserve) at a desired 70% level, please.
= [(220 - 36 - 72) x 0.7] + 72
= (112 x 0.7) + 72
= 150
I'm 54 and my resting HR is 68 BPM.

Calculate my target HRR (Heart Rate Reserve) at a desired 55% level, please.
= [(220-54-68) x 0.55] + 68
= 122
Define stroke volume.
The amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects in one beat.
Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle in one beat. Is it the left or the right ventricle?
The left.
Cardiac output is the amount of blood ejected by the heart in one minute.

What's the formula for this?
Q (ml/min) = SV(ml) x HR(bpm)
The typical male has a stroke volume (SV) of 70 ml/beat.

When he's around me his HR increases to 80 BPM.

Please calculate Q (Cardiac Output).
5600 ml/min
What's the best Ethiopian restaurant in T.O.?
Piassa Injera @ Dundas/Sherbourne

North side, east of the strip club.
What happens to blood pressure during exercise?
• Increase in systolic pressure
• Diastolic remains same or slightly decreases
What are average levels of Q (Cardiac Output):

(a) at rest
(b) in the first few minutes of exercise
(c) during exercise, after homestastis is reached
(a) At rest: 10L/min
(b) During first few minutes: 45L/min
(c) During exercise, after homeostasis: 60L/min
During exercise, blood flow diverts from the _________ ______ to the _______ _________ by ____________.
During exercise, blood flow diverts from the abdominal area to the working muscles by vasodilation.
The Borg Scale is also called the Perceived Rate of Exertion.

The "regular" Borg scale is a series of numbers between ___ and ____.
The "regular" Borg scale is a series of numbers between 6 and 20.
Active Recovery is the act of keeping moving after exercise to assist the heart and circulatory system in redistributing blood to all parts of the body.

What are 2 effects?
• Prevents blood from pooling in the exercising muscles
• Helps cells reduce the oxygen debt created at the beginning of the exercise when oxygen supply did not meet demand
What is a good measure of aerobic fitness?
VO2Max
Aerobic fitness reflects the efficiency of what systems?
Aerobic fitness reflects the efficiency of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and muscular systems.
What are 6 benefits of cardiorespiratory training?
• Increased stroke volume
• Increased blood delivery
• Increased red blood cells (and oxygen carrying capacity)
• Increased capillary density
• Increased size and number of mitochondria (improved aerobic production of ATP)
• Increased aerobic enzymes (enhanced ability to produce O2)
Using the FITT principle, what are the guidelines for cardio training for a beginner?
• Frequency: 1-3 times/week
• Intensity: 55-64% Borg/RPE 9-12
• Time: 15-30 min
• Type: Walking, stationary cycling, swimming, water aerobics
Using the FITT principle, what are the guidelines for cardio training for an intermediate client?
• Frequency: 3-5 times/week
• Intensity: 65-74% Borg/RPE 12-15
• Time: 20-45 min
• Type: Stair mill, treadmill, cycling classes, cross-training
Using the FITT principle, what are the cardio guidelines for an advanced exerciser?
• Frequency: 4-6 times/week
• Intensity: 75-90% Borg/RPE 13-16
• Time: 40-60 min
• Type: cross-training, interval training, sports
How many bones is a baby born with?
A baby is born with 270 bones.
How many bones does an adult have?
An adult has 206 bones.
What are four essential functions of the skeleton?
1. Protect vital organs and soft tissue
2. Factory where red blood cells are produced
3. Serve as reservoir for minerals
4. Provides attachment for muscles to produce movement
What is the Axial Skeleton?
The word "Axial" is taken from the word "axis" and refers to the fact that the bones are located close to or along the central axis of the body.
How many bones does the axial skeleton have?
The axial skeleton has 80 bones.
Name 4 bones of the axial skeleton.
• Skull
• Spine
• Ribs
• Sternum
What is the Appendular Skeleton?
The word appendicular is the adjective of the noun appendage, which itself means a part that is joined to something larger.

Functionally it is involved in locomotion (Lower limbs) of the axial skeleton and manipulation of objects in the environment (Upper limbs).
How many bones does the appendular skeleton have?
The appendular skeleton has 126 bones.
Name the three major bone groups of the appendular skeleton.
• Shoulders (limb girdle)
• Pelvis (limb girdle)
• Bones in limbs
Name the four classifications of bones.
Long Bones
Short Bones
Flat Bones
Irregular Bones
What are long bones?
Long bones serve as levers for movement.

i.e. humerus, femur
What are short bones?
Short bones give strength to joint, but allow for limited mobility.

i.e. tarsals (ankle) and carpals (wrist)
What are flat bones?
Flat bones provide a broad site for attachment to muscles and serve to protect internal organs.

i.e. ribs, scapulae
What are irregular bones?
Irregular bones protect internal organs and support the body

i.e. ischium,pubis,vertebrae
How are the arms and palms placed in the anatomical position?
• Arms at sides
• Palms facing forward
When it comes to anatomical terminology, ___________ means the front of the body and _______________ means the back of the body.
Anterior = front
Posterior = back
When it comes to anatomical terminology:

_________ is closer to the midline of the body and ____________ is further away from the midline.
Medial = closer to midline
Lateral = away from the midline
Define superior and inferior as they relate to anatomical terminology.
• Superior: a body part above another
• Inferior: a body part below another
When it comes to anatomical terminology:

__________ means face up.
__________ means face down.
Supine means face up.
Prone means face down.
Dorsal is the _________ of the foot, while Plantar means the __________ of the foot.
Dorsal is the top of the foot, while Plantar means the bottom of the foot.
The __________ end of the bone or muscle is closest to the body, while the __________ end of the bone or muscle is furthest from the body.
The proximal end of the bone or muscle is closest to the body, while the distal end of the bone or muscle is furthest from the body.
Name the 3 classes of joints.
Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial
Define a fibrous joint, and the kind of movement it permits.
Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing movement.

i.e. skull, pelvis
Define a cartilaginous joint, and the kind of movement it permits.
Cartilaginous joints attach to bones with cartilage and allow little movement.

i.e. spine, ribs
Define a synovial joint, and the kind of movement it permits.
It is a freely moveable joint with cartilage on surface of the bones that join to reduce friction and absorb shock.
Name three types of synovial joints, and give examples.
• Hinge: one direction (elbow, knee)
• Condyloid: two directions (wrist, ankle)
• Ball and socket (shoulder, hip)
When it comes to joint movement terminology:

____________ is bending a joint and ____________ is straightening a joint.
Flexion = bending a joint
Extension = straightening a joint
What is hyperextension?
Hyperextension is movement occurring beyond the normal joint range of motion (ROM).

Kinda like what those Cirque De Soleil performers do. But they're not hyper so it's kind of misleading. At least you'll remember this term now.
Which word is synonymous with Abduction?

(a) Protraction
(b) Retraction
Abduction = Protraction
True or False?

When a bone moves away from the midline, it's called Adduction.
False!

When a bone moves towards the midline it's called Adduction.

Abduction is when it moves away. Kind of like "abducting" the bone from the midline, get it?
What movements combine to form Circumduction?
Flexion (bending)
Abduction (moving away)
Extention (straightening)
Adduction (moving towards)
During the movie "The Karate Kid", the master teaches the kid to "wax on" and "wax off".

Wax on = __________ rotation
Wax off = __________ rotation
Wax on = medial rotation (towards midline)
Wax off = lateral rotation (away from midline)

Of course, you may wax on and off in the opposite way, or like me have never waxed a car and really don't give a shit.

Raise your right hand and wax on and off. Each time you bring the hand towards your body say "wax medial", and each time you move your hand away say "wax lateral".

Do this ten times each way. Now you know it.
When it comes to joint movement terminology, supination and pronation refer to movement of which two body parts?
The forearm and the foot.

Supination: palms or bottom of foot up
Pronation: palms or bottom of foot down
Inversion and Eversion refer to movement at the ankle joint.

When the outside of the foot is more off the ground than the inside, which of those terms applies?
When the outside of the foot is more off the ground than the inside, it is referred to "inversion".

In = Inversion = feet slanted "in"

Eversion is the opposite.
When it comes to Joint Movement Terminology:

Shrugging shoulders downwards = __________

Shrugging shoulders upwards = __________
Shrugging shoulders downwards = depression
Shrugging shoulders upwards = elevation
What is the meaning of life?
The meaning of life is to find the meaning of life.

And that means a lot to those meaning to find it.

Finding out what it means brings life meaning.

I need to find out what that means.

Know what I mean?
Name the 3 types of muscle.
Cardiac
Smooth
Skeletal
Where is cardiac muscle found?

(If you can't answer this, stop right now and contact a career counselor for a different line of work)
Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart, it powers the action that pumps blood throughout the body.
What is the function of smooth muscle?
Smooth muscle surrounds or is part of the internal organs.
Besides learning all these flashcards, what else do you need to study for the exam?
The parts of the skeleton, muscles and the heart.

Exercises.

FITT principles for cardiovascular, strength and flexibility training.

Good luck!
The Sheppard subway is...
a total waste of taxpayer dollars for a subway to IKEA.
Muscles consist of bunches of elongated rod-shaped cells called __________.
Muscles consist of bunches of elongated rod-shaped cells called muscle fibres.
Each muscle fibre is packed full of thinner fibres called _________.
Each muscle fibre is packed full of thinner fibres called myofibrils.
Each _________ is composed of a long series of sarcomeres.
Each myofibril is composed of a long series of sarcomeres.
Each myofibril is composed of a long series of __________.
Each myofibril is composed of a long series of sarcomeres.
Sarcomeres contain two types of protein.

What are they?
Actin & Myosin.
True/False

In a relaxed muscle, thick and thin myofilaments are 2cm apart.
False!

In a relaxed muscle, thick and thin myofilaments overlap each other.
During a muscle contraction thick filaments (myosin) pull on the thin filaments (actin) to pull the ends of the ___________ together.
During a muscle contraction thick filaments (myosin) pull on the thin filaments (actin) to pull the ends of the sarcomere together.
During a muscle contraction thick filaments (___?____) pull on the thin filaments (___?____) to pull the ends of the sarcomere together.
During a muscle contraction thick filaments (myosin) pull on the thin filaments (actin) to pull the ends of the sarcomere together.
True/False

There might be a couple small errors in these flashcards.
True :(

I'm studying last minute guys, but I'm trying my absolute best. There shouldn't be more than one or two though...

If you see an error, contact Kasha at kashmoneyrecords@hotmail.com.

Thanks!
Please name three types of muscle contraction.
Concentric
Eccentric
Isometric
The lowering phase of a bicep curl is a great example of a ___________ muscle contraction.
Eccentric

Here's how you can remember: the eccentric contraction is the most effective for stimulating muscle growth.

If you want big guns, you got to be "eccentric" about it and emphasize the eccentric contraction.
Guys! When you're having sex and your girl clenches her vag muscles around your dick, this is an example of an ____________ muscle contraction.
Isometric.

Now you'll never forget this one.
True/False

The job we want is one of the most important in the world.
True!

Healthy people make good decisions about their work, raising their family and taking part in their communities.

Keep on studying!
Name 2 components of the nervous system.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
- the command centre

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- delivers information about the extremities (the periphery) to the CNS
When it comes to fast twitch and slow twitch muscles, which produces ATP at the fastest rate?
Fast Twitch
True/False

Fast twitch muscles produce less force than slow twitch muscles.
False.

Fast twitch muscles produce a greater deal of force, but they fatigue easily.
Fast twitch muscles are categorized into 2A and 2B types. What's the difference?
2B are "faster" than 2A.

2A are used for most sports while 2B are used for really explosive movements like shot put and the 100 meter dash.
True/False

Slow twitch muscles work aerobically.
True!

Slow twitch muscles work aerobically while fast twitch muscles work anaerobically.
Prime movers are ________ muscles.
Agonist
True/False

Biceps are antagonist muscles.
False!

Biceps are prime mover muscles (agonists) while the tricep is an antagonist muscle (it reverses the motion).
How many muscles are there in the human body?
600
Skeletal muscles produce movement by exerting force on _______ which pull on bones.
Skeletal muscles produce movement by exerting force on tendons which pull on bones.
Origin-> where a muscle begins (proximal)

Insertion-> where a muscle ends (distal)

When a muscle contracts it pulls the _______ towards the ______.
When a muscle contracts it pulls the insertion towards the origin.
Name the 6 primal movements.
Twist
Pull
Push
Squat
Bend
Lunge
Name 5 muscles of the torso group.
Rectus Abdominus
Transverse Abdominis (TVA)
External Oblique
Internal Oblique
Erector Spinae
I've got so much studying to do.

Is it ok to skip my workout for today?
Hell fucking no!

If I work out, it will increase oxygen flow in my body, pump up by sympathetic nervous system and release feel-good chemicals (endorphins) to my brain - all of which will help me perform better on my test tomorrow.
Please name the muscles of the shoulder girdle.
Trapezius
Levator Scapulae
Rhomboids
Latissimus Dorsi
Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor
Deltoids
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
TeresMinor
Subscapularis

If you can't name these, you'll fail.

Just kidding! It's a multiple choice test, just study the main ones from the diagram and you'll be ok.
Name 2 mucles of the elbow joint.
Biceps and Triceps.
Name some muscles of the hip please.
Gluteus Maximus
Gluteus Medius + Minimus
Adductor longus + magnus + brevis
Gracilis
Pectineus
Psoas Major
Iliacus
Name two muscles of the knee group.
Hamstrings
Quadriceps
Name 3 muscles of the ankle group.
Gastrocnemius (big part of calves)
Soleus (smaller part of calves)
Tibialis Anterior (the front part)
Name some twisting and core exercises.
• Side to side twists
• Chops (High to Low)
• Chops (Low to High)
• Back Extension (superman)
• Plank
• Side plank
• Stability Ball crunch
Name some pull movements.
1. Scapular Retraction
2. Bilateral Seated Row (from a higher position)
3. Seated Row
4. Bent Over Row
5. Lat Pulldown
6. Chin Ups (Supinated + narrow grip)
7. Pull ups (Pronated + wide grip)
What are some push movements?
1. Raised Push-up
2. Push-up
3. Bench Press
4. Shoulder Press
• Lateral raise (isolation)
• Scapular retraction (regression)
Gimme some squat movements please!
1. Stability Ball wall Squat
2. Heels lifted squat
3. Free body squats
4. Back / Front loaded squats
What are some bend movements?
1. SB hip raises
2. One legged Anterior Reach
3. Romanian Deadlift
4. Deadlift
5. Good morning
Name some lunge movements.
1. Stationary Lunges
2. Step Back Lunges
3. Walking Lunges
4. Forward Step Lunges
Why do fitness assessments?
• Gives Personal Trainer a clear indication of client’s current health status and actual fitness level (using resting HR and BP)
• Start with baseline information to help improve client’s health and wellness, and to measure future progress
• Fine-tuning exercise prescription
• Determining lifestyle factors that may be counterproductive
• Goal setting and counseling
• Isolating injuries or risk factors
• Help develop a unique, individualized and accurate exercise prescription
• Motivating clients, thus increasing adherence and compliance
Fitness testing should follow the following steps:
o Prescreening
o Body composition
o Light warm-Up
o Cardio-respiratory fitness testing
o Muscular strength and endurance testing
o Flexibility testing
The validity and reliability of fitness testing can be affected by:
• Client factors
• Equipment
• Personal trainer’s skill
• Environment
True/False

It's ok to continue testing if the resting heart rate is above 100 BPM.
False!

72 BPM is average.
True/False

During testing, if Systolic Pressure is above 140, it's no big deal.
False!

Systolic must be below 140 to continue testing.
True/False

During testing, if Diastolic blood pressure is below 100, you're ok to continue.
True!

Diastolic must be below 100 to continue testing

&

Systolic must be below 140 to continue testing
Name 3 ways to test body composition.
1. Body Mass Index (BMI)
2. Hip and Waist girth measurements
3. Skinfolds and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)

You can also grab their flab and record the number of handfuls but they might not like that.
What's the formula for calculating BMI (Body Mass Index)?
BMI = kg/m2
I weight 65 kilos and am 172cm tall.

What's my BMI?
BMI = kg/m2

BMI = 65/(1.72x1.72)

BMI = 65/2.9584

= 21.971
=22

Not bad, bitches...not bad at all.

BMI < 19 or > 25 puts client at risk

BMI > 30 often indicates obesity (unless you got lots of muscles)
True/False

For a man, a waist girth over 102cm is perfectly ok.
False

Over 102 is considered high risk.
True/False

For a woman, a waist girth under 88cm is ok.
True
What are 2 good exercises for evaluating muscular endurance?
• Push-up
• Abdominal Curl-up
What are 5 steps for good program design?
Step 1: Information gathering
Step 2: Prioritization of program goals
Step 3: Creation and evaluation of program
Step 4: Delivery of the program
Step 5: Re-assessment
What are the basic components of a program?
• Warm-up
• Strength Training
• Cardiorespiratory training
What are 4 elements of good program design?
That it is Safe, Effective, Efficient and Enjoyable.

If the above elements are in place, the client will SEEE the difference!
What are the 9 Can-Fit-Pro training principles?
FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type)
Individualization
Specificity
Progressive overload
Recovery
Structural tolerance
All-around development
Reversibility
Maintenance
What are two kinds of warm-ups?
Cardiovascular Warm-up
i.e. - elliptical, treadmill

Functional Warm-up
i.e. - Light sets of the exercise to be attempted
Give me the FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type) parameters for a beginner for cardiovascular training. Please.
Frequency: 1-3 times/week
Intensity: 55-64%HRMax or RPE 9-12
Time: 15-30 minutes
Type: Walk, stationary bike, swim, basic fitness classes
Please give me the FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type) parameters for an advanced client for cardiovascular training.
Frequency: 4-6 times/week
Intensity: 75-90%HRMax or RPE 13-16
Time: 45-60 minutes
Type: X-training, Intervals, Sports

= boring as $*(&%*$%
Please give me the FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type) parameters for an intermediate client for cardiovascular training.
Frequency: 4-6 times/week
Intensity: 75-90%HRMax or RPE 13-16
Time: 40-60 minutes
Type: Cross-training, Interval training, Sports
Give me the FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type) parameters for a beginner for strength training please.
Frequency: 2-3x/week
Intensity: less than 70%1RM
Time: 12-15reps/1-3sets/30-60s rest
Type:body weight, stability ball, machines
Please give me the FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type) parameters for an advanced client for strength training.
Frequency: 3-4x/week
Intensity: 70-80%1RM
Time: 8-12reps/1-4sets/30-120s rest
Type: freeweights, stability ball, pulleys, machines
Please give me the FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type) parameters for an intermediate client for strength training.
Frequency: 3-4x/week
Intensity: 70-80%1RM
Time: 8-12reps/1-4sets/30-120s rest
Type: freeweights, stability ball, pulleys, machines
To fix kyphotic posture, what is a good ratio of push/pull exercises?
3:1 ratio of pulling to pushing

Strengthening the back will improve posture!
True/False

To fix posture, focus on the lats.
False!

Focus on the lower traps.

I don't think you need to know this, but it was in our class for the GLPTI course.
True/False

Overhead presses are awesome to fix bad posture.
False!
What are some commonly tight muscles?
• Pectoralis major / minor
• Anterior deltoid
• Subscapularis
• Latissimus dorsi
• Levator scapulae
• Upper trapezius
• Psoas major and Iliacus
• Rectus Femoris
• Adductor Group
• Errector Spinae
• Gastrocnemius, Soleus
What are some commonly inactive muscles?
• Rhomboids
• Lower trapezius
• Posterior deltoid
• Teres minor
• Infraspinatus
• Serratus anterior
• Rectus Abdominis
• Oblique
• Gluteus maximus
• Gluteus medius
• Hamstrings
Gimme the FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type) parameters for stretching please.
Frequency: 4-7 times/week
Intensity: Slight tension with NO pain!
Time: 20-30 seconds/stretch
Type: Static stretches
What are some preferred methods of stretching?
• Assisted static
• Assisted ROM
• Assisted myofacial release
• Trigger point or ART
Name the three cycle types in the Can-Fit model of periodization.
Macrocycle
• Largest component of periodization program
i.e. emphasis overall goal or “dream”
- 2 years

Mesocycle
• Intermediate component of the periodized program
i.e. Foundation, Build, Burn, Strength
- 6 weeks to 3 months

Microcycle
• Smallest component of the periodized program
i.e. changing exercises as strength increases
-1-3 weeks
What are some components of lifestyle evaluation?
• Nutrition
• Water consumption
• Smoker
• Alcohol
• Caffeine
• Sleep patterns
• Stress level
When we talk about S.M.A.R.T. goals, what does S.M.A.R.T. stand for?
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic
Timely

Specific: A specific goal has a much greater chance of being accomplished than a general goal. To set a specific goal you must answer the six “W” questions: who, what, where, when & why

Measurable - Establish concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of each goal you set.

Attainable: When you identify goals that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them come true. You develop the attitudes, abilities, skills, and financial capacity to reach them. You begin seeing previously overlooked opportunities to bring yourself closer to the achievement of your goals.

Realistic- To be realistic, a goal must represent an objective toward which you are both willing and able to work.

Timely – A goal should be grounded within a time frame. With no time frame tied to it there’s no sense of urgency. If you want to lose 10 lbs, when do you want to lose it by? “Someday” won’t work. But if you anchor it within a timeframe, “by May 1st”, then you’ve set your unconscious mind into motion to begin working on the goal.
Apply the S.M.A.R.T. goal analysis towards the goal of passing this Can-Fit-Pro exam.

(I'm serious)
Specific: There are two options here: pass or fail. We all specifically want to pass.

Measurable: The measurement by which we pass or fail is 80% and we're all gonna pass!!!

Attainable: How do we specifically attain reach this goal? By studying our book, these cards, and resting and eating right before the exam.

Realistic: Does this goal represent an object worth reaching? Are we willing to do it? FUCK YEAH.

Timely: What's the time frame? From now until the test, so get to it!
What are the stages of change for a potential client?
Stage 1: Pre-contemplation
The person is not seriously thinking about changing or starting an exercise program.

Stage 2: Contemplation
The person has started to think about exercising or changing behaviour and has most likely identified a course of action.

Stage 3: Preparation
In this stage, the person has actually begun to plan for the change and may have made some minor changes in behaviour.

Stage 4: Action
At this stage, the person has taken action and has begun to make the necessary changes, but it has been less than 6 months since the person started making these changes.

Stage 5: Maintenance
This stage begins 6 months after the person has successfully adhered to an exercise program.
What are some determinants of exercise adherence?
• Demographics
• Behaviours
• Cognitive and personality variables (i.e. "lack of time")
• Environmental factors (i.e. location)
• Physical Activity Characteristics (i.e. intensity & duration)
What are the 4 P's of marketing?
• Product
• Price
• Promotions
• Place
Name some beginner exercises that you can list in your case study.
Chest Press
Seated Row
Lateral Raise
Leg press
Leg curl
Abdominal curl
Back extension
Name some exercises for an older adult that you can list in your case study.
Chest Press
Seated Row
Leg Press
Abdominal Curl
Back Extension
Name some intermediate exercises that you can list in your case study.
Chest Press
Chest Fly
Seated Row
Lat Pulldown
Posterior raise
Biceps curl
Triceps press
Leg press
Leg curl
Leg extension
Abdominal curl
Reverse abdominal curl
Back extension
Name 2 stretches for the chest.
• Chest Expansion: elbows at shoulder height, fingers near ears, squeeze shoulder blades
• Chest Reach-Back and Turn: arm out at shoulder height, hold onto stationary object
Name 3 stretches for the upper back.
• Upper Back Scoop: legs extended, knees slightly bent, lean forward, reach back of thighs, round upper back
• Side Reach: Feet apart, knees slightly bent, reach one hand above the head leaning to opposite side
• Pole Reach: grab something in front, lean back
Name 2 stretches for the lower back.
• Cat stretch
• Seated Twist
Name 2 stretches for the abdominals.
• Cobra
• Lying Arch: lie on floor reach back and slightly arch lower back
Name 2 stretches for the shoulders.
• Arms behind and open: clasp hands together in small of back, lift arms upward
• Arm straight across: bring one arm across the body and chest height, holding with other arm
Name a stretch for the biceps.
• Pronated hand reach-back and turn: Like the chest reach back, but holding onto something with thumb down
Name a stretch for the triceps.
• Elbow bend and push: lift one arm above head, bend elbow and place the hand between shoulder blades
Name a stretch for the hip flexors.
• Kneeling Lunge
Give me a couple stretches for the gluteals.
• Seated Figure: cross one leg over other in seated position bending at knee
• Lying knee hug
Name two stretches for the adducters.
• Seated butterfly
• Side lunge
Give me a stretch for the abducters.
• Lying leg crossover
Give me a couple stretches for the quads.
• Standing knee bend
• Hurdler stretch: lying down on side, flex top knee, raising heel toward glutes
Give me a couple stretches for the hamstrings.
• Seated hip hinge
• Leg up: stand feet together, raise one leg onto bench
Name a stretch for the gastrocnemius.
• Heel drop: stand on step allowing heels to fall back to stretch calves
What do I need to know for the practical exam?
Hey everyone! I passed the theory exam and today I'm doing the practical.

Here are my notes, and I'm just going to cut and paste because I don't have time to format them. I also have special notes for the particular case study I received so yours might be different.

Are you ready?

Can-Fit-Pro Practical Exam: April 2/12

Starting the Personal Training Session

Overview of the session
• Seated at table
• Give PAR-Q
• Gather information:
­ Exercise history
­ Dietary history
­ Type of job
­ Pregnancies
­ Pains/injuries
• Discuss goals and how they fit into program:
­ Lose 5-8 lbs
­ Increase upper body strength
­ Decrease stress

Fitness Assessment
Explain value of fitness assessment
• Gives clear indication of client’s current health status
• Determines lifestyle factors that interfere with long-term goals
• Identify client’s actual fitness level for muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, body composition and flexibility
• Helps to develop an accurate and effective exercise prescription
• Gives a measure that identifies improvements as client achieves better physical fitness

Sit and Reach Test
This is an important test to measure the flexibility of the hamstrings and hip flexors.
(a) 5-10 minute warm-up
(b) Performs 2 modified hurdler’s stretches on each leg
(c) Have client sit on floor with legs 10” apart and put the measuring tape between them with the 40cm mark by their feet
(d) Sitting up straight with one hand over the other, have them reach forward, and take the best of three measurements
Client result = 22 cm
For her age group, 33-36 cm is a “good” result, with over 41 cm being “excellent”.

Push-Up Test
An important test because strength and endurance in the muscles of the upper body, specifically the chest, shoulders, triceps and core is a good indication of overall fitness.
(a) Instruct client to perform a couple of push-ups to observe for proper execution
(b) Have client lie on the stomach with hands pointing forward and positioned under the shoulders
(c) Have client push up from the mat, fully straightening the elbows and then returning to start position
Client result = 3 with 15-20 being “good” and over 30 being “excellent”.

Warm-up
• Teaches use of machine
• Explain benefits of performing a warm-up
­ Warms up muscles
­ Prevents injury
­ Mental preparation for the workout
­ Screens for injury
• FITT
­ Frequency: Every workout
­ Intensity: 55% HRR = 136BPM
­ Time: 5-10 minutes
­ Type: Treadmill/Elliptical
• Intensity
­ Rate of Perceived Exertion from 6-20
 9 = very light
 11 = light
 13 = somewhat hard
 15 = hard
 17 = very hard
­ HRR: Heart Rate Reserve
 Heart rate zone
 Calculate to determine the best rate for fat burning
• Monitor heart rate
­ 15 second measure x 4

Cardiorespiratory Training
• Teach use of machine
• Explains benefits of cardiorespiratory training
­ Lowers blood pressure and resting heart rate
­ Reduces stress
­ Increases energy
­ Burns fat
• FITT
­ Frequency: 3x/week
­ Intensity: 55% -64% = 136-147BPM
­ Time: 20 minutes
­ Type: Intervals on Treadmill/Elliptical
• Intensity
­ Rate of Perceived Exertion from 6-20
 9 = very light
 11 = light
 13 = somewhat hard
 15 = hard
 17 = very hard
­ HRR: Heart Rate Reserve
 Heart rate zone
 Calculate to determine the best rate for fat burning
• Monitor heart rate
­ 15 second measure x 4 @ 5/10/15 minutes

Resistance Training
• Benefits of resistance training:
­ Increase upper body strength
­ Increased metabolism because muscle burns fat
­ Lose weight
­ Lowers stress
­ Increase bone density
• FITT
­ Frequency: 3x/week
­ Intensity: 60%1RM
­ Time: 2 sets of 12-15 reps/ Tempo (Eccentric-Pause-Concentric-Pause) 4:1:2:0/Rest: 60s
­ Type: Foundation exercises

Category 1

1. Squat
Muscle worked: glutes, hamstrings, hip adducters, quadriceps, spinal extensors
Starting position:
1. Bar above scapulae
2. Hands placed in proper position in proximity to grips
3. Elbows pointed down
4. Feet outside shoulder-width with elbows pointed down
5. Knees and hips slightly flexed
6. Spine and neck in neutral position, eyes straight ahead Form:
1. Chest Up
2. Activate abdominals
3. Don’t let knees go over toes
4. Look straight ahead
5. Weight on balls of feet
Eccentric phase:
1. Push hips back
2. Allow knees to bend naturally
3. Let trunk lean forward slightly
4. Lower body until upper legs are parallel to the ground or go as far down as comfortably possible
How to spot:
Spotter should be behind exerciser with arm at lifter’s torso
Concentric phase:
1. Return to starting phase
2. Maintain posture
3. Push from balls of feet
4. Eyes forward

2. Lunge
Muscle worked: glutes, hamstrings, hip adducters, quadriceps, spinal extensors
Starting position:
1. Torso upright
2. Dumbells at sides
3. Knees and hips slightly flexed
4. Spine and neck in neutral position, eyes straight ahead Form:
1. Chest Up
2. Activate abdominals
3. Don’t let knees go over toes
4. Look straight ahead
Eccentric phase:
1. Lower body until legs are at 90-degree angles How to spot:
Spotter should be behind exerciser with arm at lifter’s torso
Concentric phase:
1. Return to starting position

3. Leg Press
Muscle worked: glutes, hamstrings, hip adducters, quadriceps, spinal extensors
Starting position:
1. Sit down on the machine and place your legs on the platform directly in front of you at a medium (shoulder width) foot stance
2. Lower the safety bars holding the weighted platform in place and press the platform all the way up until your legs are fully extended in front of you
Form:
1. TVA activated
2. Chest up
3. Eyes straight ahead
4. Do not lock knees
Eccentric phase:
As you inhale, slowly lower the platform until your upper and lower legs make a 90-degree angle
Concentric phase:
Pushing mainly with the ball of your foot and using the quadriceps go back to the starting position as you exhale


Category 2

4. Calf Raise
Muscles: Gastrocnemius and soleus
Starting position:
1. Stand with toes on edge of platform
2. Hold dumbbell in one hand with opposite hand holding bar of machine for support
3. Begin with slight knee bend and heels close to floor Form:
1. TVA activated
2. Chest up
3. Neck aligned with spine
Eccentric phase:
Lower the body to starting position
How to spot:
Trainer should be beside exerciser monitoring movement

Concentric phase:
1. Raise up by extending the ankles
2. Keep weight on balls of feet
3. Extend ankles as far as possible

5. Leg Extensions
Muscles: Quadriceps
Starting position:
1. Sit so that knee joints are aligned with the axis of the machine
2. Lower back should be firm against the seat
3. Pad should be pressing against lower shins Form:
1. Sit upright, natural arch in lower back
2. TVA activated
3. Eyes straight ahead, neck aligned with spine
Eccentric phase:
Raise pad until legs are almost fully extended How to spot:
Trainer should spot at the pad in a kneeling lunge position

Concentric phase:
Lower the legs to the starting position

6. Leg Curl (Prone)
Muscles: Hamstrings
Starting position:
1. Lie prone on bench
2. Knee joints aligned with axis of machine
3. Pad below gastrocnemius but above Achilles tendon How to spot:
Trainer should be at side spotting on the pad ready to assist with weight
Eccentric phase:
Lower weight to starting position

Concentric phase:
Press pelvis against bench and raise weight until knees form approximately a 90-degree angle

Category 3

7. Chest Press
Muscles: Pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, triceps group
Starting position:
1. Sit on seat of chest press station, adjust seat to position mid chest at height of handles
2. Grasp handles with overhand grip, keep elbows aligned between wrists and shoulders
3. Use optional foot lever to release weights Form:
1. TVA activated
2. Elbows aligned between wrists and shoulders
3. Feet on floor
Eccentric phase:
Return until elbows and shoulders are aligned
How to spot:
Trainer in front of machine with one hand extended on handles to assist if necessary

Concentric phase:
Press lever until arms are almost extended


8. Push Up
Muscles: Pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, Latissimus dorsi, triceps, hip flexors and core/trunk stabilizers
Starting position:
1. Supine position, torso and legs off the floor
2. Exercisers hands a bit wider than shoulder width
3. Feet hip width Form:
Body in line
TVA activated
Chest up
Neck aligned with spine
Eccentric phase:
Lower back to original position
Nose slightly above floor
How to spot:
Kneeling lunge position
Concentric phase:

Push up with hands until elbows are fully extended

Category 4
9. Lat Pulldown
Muscles: Latissimus dorsi, teres major, posterior deltoid, rhomboids, mid/lower trapezius, levator scapulae, biceps group
Starting position:
1. Wide pronated grip so when upper arms are parallel to the ground they form an approximate 90-degree angle
2. Knees secure under pad
3. Slight lean-back Form:
TVA activation
Scapulae depressed and retracted
Eccentric phase:
1. Allow arms to go back up slowly while keeping tension on lats
2. No change in the angle of hips with respect to lean-back
How to spot:
Spotter is behind lifter with both hands on the bar
Concentric phase:
1. Pull bar towards chest until arms are about parallel to the ground
2. Pull scapulae down and together, creating a natural arch in the lower back

10. Cable Lat Row (Seated with V-Bar)
Muscles: Rhomboids, mid-trapezius, Latissimus dorsi, teres major, posterior deltoid, biceps
Starting position:
1. Plant feet firmly against machine with knees slightly bent
2. Lean back slightly with a natural arch in the back
3. While holding handles, keep wrists in a neutral position and elbows slightly bent Form:
• TVA activated
• Knees slightly bent
• Neck aligned with spine
• Scapulae retracted
Eccentric phase:
Slowly return the arms and lats back to the original position, keeping the scapulae retracted
How to spot:
Beside lifter in kneeling lunge position
Concentric phase:
• Keeping arms slightly bent, contract the rhomboids and pull the shoulder blades together and down
• Pull arms back keeping them close to the side of the body until elbows are about straight down from the shoulders


Category 5
11. Bicep Curl
Muscles: biceps, wrist flexors
Starting position:
Hold dumbells with pronated grip, holding them at side with palms facing in Form:
• TVA activation
• Neutral spine
• Knees slightly flexed
• Scapulae retracted and depressed
Eccentric phase:
Lower dumbells to starting position until elbows are slightly bent How to spot:
In front of lifter ready to assist if necessary

Concentric phase:
• Curl dumbells while slowly supinating wrist until elbows are fully flexed and the dumbells are in front of the chest


12. Triceps Extension
Muscles: Triceps
Starting position:
1. Stand with feet shoulder-width apart and knees slightly flexed
2. Grasp bar with a pronated grip so that elbows are against torso
3. Forearms should be parallel to ground and elbows should be at 90 degrees Form:
• TVA activation
• Head line with spine
• Knees slightly bent
Eccentric phase:
Return bar to starting position finishing with approximately a 90-degree angle at the elbows
How to spot:
Trainer is at side ready to assist if necessary
Concentric phase:
Push down fully extending elbows

Category 6
13. Partial Ab Curl
Muscles: Rectus abdominis
Starting position:
Supine position, arms fully extended along torso
Bend knees so that the feet are flat on the floor Form:
• Press lower back and ribs into floor
• Maintain neck and spine alignment
Eccentric phase:
Return to starting position How to spot:
Kneeling lunge beside exerciser
Concentric phase:
• Curl torso up by bringing the ribs toward the pelvis and the hands along the floor straight towards the feet
• Curl torso until it is fully flexed

14. Back Extension
Muscles: Erector Spinae
Starting position:
1. Prone position on floor
2. Hands next to ears on floor
3. Elbows at torso and head slightly off the ground
Eccentric phase:
Lower body to start position How to spot:
Kneeling lunge next to exerciser with hand on lower back monitoring movement

Concentric phase:
• Move up slowly by lifting the upper torso off ground and retracting the scapulae
• Extend off the floor without hyperextending lower back
• Maintain head alignment

15. Shoulder-knee Curl-up
Muscles: rectus abdominus and obliques
Starting position:
1. Supine position with one leg flat on floor and the other at a 90-degree angle at the knee
2. Both hands behind the head Form:
• Neck neutral
• Press lower back and ribs into the floor
Eccentric phase:
Return to starting position by lowering torso How to spot:
Kneeling lunge beside exerciser

Concentric phase:
• Bring opposite elbow to the opposing knee by flexing the torso and pulling the ribs toward the pelvis
• Keep the neck in a neutral and relaxed position

16. Plank
Muscles: core, hip extensors, shoulder flexors, erector spinae
Starting position:
• In a prone position with neck and back in proper alignment place elbows at a 90-degree angle along the torso
• Toes pointing down
Eccentric phase:
Lower body to starting position
How to spot:
Trainer is in a kneeling lunge position next to the exerciser
Concentric phase:
Lift upper body by pushing up from elbows


Flexibility Component
• Explains purpose of cool down
­ Prevents injury
­ Increased range of motion
­ Reduces stress and increases relaxation
­ Improves posture
• FITT:
­ Frequency: every day
­ Intensity: No pain with slight tension
­ Time: 20-30 seconds
­ Type: Stretches as outlined on program card
• Discuss correct breathing technique

Glutes
Lying Knee Hug
• Lie with feet together and bring one knee forward and up toward the chest
• Place hands around the thigh and pull the knee into the chest

Hip Flexors
Kneeling lunge
• Kneel on one leg
• Step out with the front foot and press hips forward
• Place hands on the front thigh for support and keep body weight distributed between both legs

Quads
Knee Bend
• Bend one knee and hold the ankle with the same-side hand, pulling heel toward the gluteals

Hamstrings
Seated Hip Hinge
• Sit on the floor with one leg straight and the other bent at the knee with the heel touching the inside of the opposite thigh
• Lower the outside of the thigh and calf of the bent leg onto the floor
• Exhale while lowering upper torso onto the thigh

Calves
Heel Drop
• Place the ball of one foot on the edge of a step or curb with the other foot slightly in front
• Push the heel down, keeping the knee straight

Chest
Chest Reach-Back & Turn
• Stand and raise the arm out to the side at shoulder height
• Hold on to a stationary object and slowly rotate upper body away from hand

Lats
Pole Reach
• Stand with feet apart, reach for a pole or stationary object and lean back

Biceps
Pronated Hand Reach-Back and Turn
• Stand and raise the arm out to the side at shoulder height
• Place the back of the hand (thumb down) against a stationary object
• Slowly rotate the upper body away from the hand

Triceps
Elbow Bend and Push
• Lift one arm above the head
• Bend the elbow and place the hand between the shoulder blades
• Use the other hand to gently push the elbow back

Rectus abdominus
Cobra
• Lie on the floor chest down with hands near shoulders
• Lift the chest and ribs off the floor as far as comfortably possibly by pushing with the hands
Erector Spinae
Cat Stretch
• Kneel on the floor on the hands and knees
• Pull in the abdominals to round the spin, tuck chin into chest
Obliques
Seated Twist
• Sitting on the floor, extend the legs straight out with knees slightly bent
• Place one hand on the floor behind the body and the other across the thigh
• Twist to one side