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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three types of carcinogenesis?
physical
chemical
biological
What are the three major steps for malignant transformation?
initiation
promotion
progression
What are some of the things that proto-onco gene proteins code for?
extracellular signaling molecules

growth factor receptors

cytoplasmic signaling transducers

nuclear transcription factors
What are the three steps in invasion?
attachment

proteolysis

migration
What are the steps in metastasis?
detachment

matrix degradation with intravasation

evasion of immune system

adherence and extravasation

establishment and growth

angiogenesis
cycle specific or non specific?

-alkylating agents
-antimetabolites
-antineoplastic antibiotics
-microtubule spindle poisons
non-specific: alkylating agents, antineoplastic agents

cell cycle specific: antimetabolites, microtubule spindle poisons
What are the 4 factors in chemotherapeutic drug resistance?
anatomic compartments

influence of tumor microenvironment

Inherent drug resistance

acquired drug resistance
Describe late radiation side effects.
these effects manifest in slowly dividing cells usually of mesenchymal origin such as bone, nervous tissue, and blood vessels.
What are the 4 cellular responses to ionizing radiation?
repair

repopulation

redistribution

reoxygenation
What diagnostic tools are used in basic tumor staging?
CBC
chemistry
U/A
regional LN evaluation
Thoracic rads
abdominal ultrasound
what biochemical changes can be seen with cancer cachexia?
hypoglycemia
hypoproteinemia
lactic acidosis
altered amino acid and lipid profiles
What is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in dogs?
t-cell lymphoma
What are the signs for hypercalcemia in canines?
anorexia
vomiting
dysphagia
constipation
muscular weakness
lethargy
PU/PD
depression
What signs are related to hypoglycemia?
disorientation
weakness
ataxia
convulsions
coma
What are the two neoplastic causes for hypoglycemia?
beta cell neoplasia

non-islet cell neoplasia
What is a specific chemotherapy agent used to treat beta cell neoplasia?
streptozotocin
What drug can be used to treat hypertrophic osteopathy?
NSAIDS
corticosteroids
Bisphosphonates
What differentiated B-cell neoplasias is hyperglobulinemia seen with?
multiple myeloma
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
b-cell lymphoma
What is the most common PNS in veterinary oncology?
anemia
What common cancers cause thrombocytopenia?
lymphoma
hemangiosarcoma
sertoli cell tumor
What are some signs of mast cell tumor degranulation?
gastric ulcers
GI bleeding
anorexia
vomiting
hypotension
collapse
bronchospasm
What tumor is most often associated with DIC?
HSA
What are the typical changes seen with acute tumor lysis syndrome?
hyperkalemia
hyperphosphatemia
hyperuricemia
hypocalcemia
What is the difference in treatment for febrile and non-febrile neutropenic chemotherapy patients?
febrile- place on IV antibiotics such as baytril-ampicillin or aminoglycoside-cephalosporin until resolved

non-febrile- monitor temp and place on wide spec oral meds
What is used to treat extravasation of vinca alkaloids?
hyaluronidase injections
If doxorubicin is extravasated, what can be used to decrease the severity of signs and symptoms?
dexraxoxane systemically
What drugs can cause sterile hemorrhagic cystitis?
cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide
What is the most common canine cutaneous malignancy?
mast cell tumor
What breeds are commonly affected by MCT?
brachycephalic
retrievers
shar-pei
weimaraner
viszla
maltese
What locations are considered to have a poorer prognosis in regards MCT?
axilla
inguinal
perineum
external genitalia
oral
aural
muco-cutaneous areas
Describe a stage 0 MCT
one neoplasm incompletely excised from the dermis without regional LN involvement
Describe a stage 1 MCT
One neoplasm confined to the dermis without regional LN involvement
Describe a stage 2 MCT
one neoplasm confined to the dermis with regional LN involvement
Describe a stage 3 MCT
Multiple dermal neoplasms or large infiltrating neoplasms with or without regional LN involvement
describe a stage 4 MCT
Any neoplasm with distant metastasis including blood and or bone marrow involvement or recurrence with metastasis
How should L-asparaginase be administered?
IM or SC
What two chemotherapy agents can cause pulmonary toxicity?
Bleomycin

Cisplatin
What is the mean age of dogs with MCT?
8.5 yrs
What are the most common metastatic sites for MCT?
local and regional LNs
How is a diagnosis of MCT achieved?
cytology or histopathology
What are 2 possible environmental risk factors for canine lymphosarcoma?
herbicide exposure

magnetic field exposure
describe the stages of multicentric lymphosarcoma?
1-solitary LN involvement
2-multiple LN involvement same side of diaphragm
3-multiple LN on both sides of diaphragm
4-hepatic and or splenic
5-bone marrow or other extranodal involvement
What are the clinical manifestations of alimentary lymphosarcoma?
weight loss/anorexia
hypoproteinemia
GI obstruction
Malabsorption and digestion
vomitiing and diarrhea
What electrolyte change is seen in 10-40% of mediastinal lymphosarcoma cases?
hypercalcemia
What are the 8 established prognostic factors for lymphosarcoma?
clinical stage
clinical substage
histiologic grade
immunophenotype
hypercalcemia
sex
proliferative indices
anatomic location
What are biological risk factors for feline lymphosarcoma?
FeLV
FIV
Describe a typical canine HSA patient.
older large breed dog with a mean age of 9-10 yrs. GSD, Goldens, Labs, and Poodles
What may be observed on a CBC that is characteristic of HSA?
anemia with marked regeneration and abnormal red cell morphology
What is the most common pattern of HSA metastasis to the lungs.
diffuse lesions in the interstitium
What is the therapy of choice for HSA?
surgery with asjuvant systemic chemotherapy.
After a splenectomy, what 2 electrolytes should be especially closely monitored due to possible arrhythmias?
Magnesium and potassium
Successful chemotherapeutic protocols for HSA invariably include what drug?
doxorubicin based chemicals
Which dog breeds are at greater risk of developing Osteosarcoma?
Irish setters
St Bernards
Rottweilers
Doberman Pinschers
Name the 3 most common locations where lesions of OSA are seen.
distal radius
proximal humerus
proximal tibia
What are the criteria for limb sparing surgery in reference to OSA?
tumor involving <50% of the length of the bone

not extending across a joint

pt is free from metastatic or concurrent disease