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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organs of Respiration
1) Nose
2) Nasal Cavity
3) Pharynx
4) Larynx
5) Trachea
6) Bronchi
7) Lungs
8) Diaphragm
Functions of Respiratory System
1) Works closely with circulatory system(oxegnating blood)
2) Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
3) Gas exchange and conditioning
4) Sound Production
5) Olfaction
6) Defense( Immune System)
Steps of Respiration
1) Pulmonary Ventilation
2) External Respiration
3) Transport of Respiratory Gases
4) Internal Respiration
5) Carbon Dioxide is added to the atmosphere during exhalation
Pulmonary Ventilation
Air moving in and out of the lungs
External Respiration
Gas exchange between blood and air (at the alveoli)
Internal Respiration
Gases exchanged between bood and tissue cells
Ventilation
1) Inspiration
2) Exhalation
Inspiration
1) Diaphragm contracts- moves inferiorly and flattens
2) External Intercostals contract- raising the ribs
Expiration
1) Quiet respiration is passive
2) Forced respiration produced by contraction of muscles in the abdominal wall
Cystic Fibrosis
1) Genetic Respiratory Disease
2) Affects organs that secrete mucin, tears, sweat, digestive juices, and saliva
3) Abnormal chloride transport- results in thick mucus
4) Mucus buildup blocks pancreatic ducts and prevents digestive enzymes from entering the small intestine
5) Mucus buildup blocks the bronchial tree, leading to chronic respiratory infections
Upper Respiratory Tract
1) Nose and Nasal Cavity
2) Pharynx
Nose and Nasal Cavity
1) Provides an airway for respiration
2) Lined with psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
3) Blood vessels and mucus help moisten and warm entering air
4) Mucus and vibrissae filter inhaled air
5) Resonating chamber for speech and sound
6) House olfactory receptors
Pharynx
1) Connects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus
2) Three regions:
A) Nasopharynx
B) Oropharynx
C) Laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx Epithelium
Psuedostratified ciliated columnar
Oropharynx Epithelium
Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous
Laryngopharynx Epithelium
Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous
Lower Respiratory Tract
1) Larynx
2) Trachea
3) Bronchi and Bronchioles and Associated Structures
4) Respiratory Portion
Trachea
1) Windpipe
2) Posterior wall is not rigid; allows esophagus to expand
3) Composed of "C" shaped tracheal cartilages
4) Mucosa
A) psuedostratified ciliated
columnar epithelium
B) Contains numerous goblet cells
Goblet Cells
secret mucus
Larynx
1) Routes Air and Food
2) Provides open airway
3) Voice Production
Voice Production
True Vocal Chords(or Vocal Folds)
1) Length creates Sound Range
2) Tension creates Pitch
3) Force of Air creates Volume(loudness)

length, tension, and positition determines sound quality
Respiratory Portion
1) Respiratory Bronchioles
2) Alveolar Ducts
3) Pulmonary Alveoli
Alveoli
Small saccular outpocketings
Compostion of Alveolus
1) Type I Cells
2) Type II Cells
3) Dust Cells
4) Respiratory Membrane
5) Alveolar Pores
Type I Cells of Alveolus
1) Most Numerous
2) Structural Cells- provide rapid gas diffusion across alveolar wall
3) Simple Squamous
Type II Cells of Alveolus
1) also called septal cell
2) Cuboidal shape
3) Secret Pulmonary Surfactant- reduces surface tension and prevents alveoli from collapsing
Dust Cells
Macrophages
Respiratory Membrane
Air-blood barrier
External Structures of the Lung
1) Base
2) Apex
3) Hilum
4) Cardiac Impression and Notch
Base
Rests on the diaphragm
Apex
Superior region of tip
Hilum
1) Region where bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves pass
2) Collectively, all structures passing through the hilum are termed the "root of the lung"
Cardiac Impression and Notch
Indentations formed by the heart
Structures of the Pleura
*serous membrane lining the lungs
1) Parietal pleura
2) Visceral pleura
3) Pleural cavity- space between the two layers of pleura
4) Pleural fluid- lubrication that prevents friction of lungs during breathing
Respiratory Disorders
1) Pneumonia
2) Bronchial Asthma
3) Emphysema
4) Lung Cancer
Pneumonia
Infection of the alveoli of the lung resulting in swellling and reduced capacity for gas exchange.
Bronchial Asthma
Hypersensitivity of conductin pathways leads to inflammation and bronchoconstriction
Emphysema
1) Poorly functioning alveoli due to dilation of alveoli and loss of elastic tissue
2) Air is trapped in alveoli
Lung Cancer
1) Cigarette Smoking Leading Cause
2) 3 Common Types
A) Squamous Cell Carcinoma
B) Adenocarcinoma
C) Small Cell Carcinoma
3) Most effective treatment is complete removal of diseased lung
Development of the Respiratory System
1) Week 4: Respiratory diverticulum and primary bronchial buds form
2) Week 5: Secondary bronchial buds form
3) Week 6: Tertiary bronchi form