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148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
groups of similar cells organized to execute the same function
study of tissues
comprised of various tissues in a funcitional unit
organs work to together for a specific task to form an
organ system
cells recognize each other by their
extracellular matrix and carbohydrates on cell membranes
secreted by fibroblasts or connective tissue
extracellular matrix
extracellular matrix is mostly composed of
cells are connected by
cell junctions
3 basic categories of cell junctions
desmosomes, tight junctions, gap junctions
button-like welds that join opposing cell membranes
rivet cells into strong sheet but still allow substances to pass freely through intracellular spaces
this typle of cell junction is commonly found in sheets of tisse that are subject to severe stress
desmosomes are often found in what kind of muscle
heart muscle
intercellular junctions which are tight enough to block transport of substances through the intercellular space
tight junctions
have specialized membrane proteins that bond cells tightly together
tight junctions
these type of junctions are often found in epithelial laters that separate two kinds of solution
tight junctions
tight junctions are often found in the
intestines (prevents mixing of blood w/ intestinal contents)
channels or pores through membranes of two cells and across the intracellular space
gap junctions
allows electrical communication b/w cells and for the flow of ions and small molecules
gap junctions
gap junctions are commonly found areas which require rapid communication such as the
tissue that lines and covers
tissue that binds other tissues together
tissue that enables movement
tissue that transmits impulses and responds to stimuli
tissue that is composed of tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer or sheet covering the body surface or lining body cavities
epithelial tissue is usually riveted together by
tight junctions
functions of this tissue type include protection, secretion, and sensation
whenever anything enters or leaves the body it must pass through
epithelial tissue
the inner surface of epithelial tissue is anchored to connective tissue by a thin non-cellular layer which is ECM made of ___ fibers, called the ___
collagen, basement membrane
three major types of epithelium
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
flattened epithelial cells that are shaped like a pancake
thin, delicate and porous tissue that is common for diffusion of things
squamous cells are often found in the
epithelial cells that are often resemble the shape of dice
cuboidal cells are often found in the
lining the kidney tubules, thyroid, and thymus
elongated epithelial cells that resemble pillars or columns
type of epithelial cell that is very important in absorption of the stomach and intestines
epithelial cells that can have cilia or microvilli on their luminal side
refers to a layer that is only one cell thick
refers to a single layer of flattened cells
Simple Squamous epithelium
very "leaky" type of tissue that is excellent for diffusion
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Tissue often found lining the blood vessels and alveoli of the lungs
Simple Squamous Epithelium
refers to tissue whereby there are several layers of flattened cells stacked upon each other
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
this type of tissue is found in areas that are subject to abrasion
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Stratified Squamous Epithelium is often found in the
outer layer of skin, linings of anus and vagina
further categories of Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Keratinized and non-Keratinized
"waterproofs" the tissue
keratinzation occurs in the
outer lining of skin (epidermis)
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium occurs in areas that stay moist but are subject to wear and tear, including the
vagina, anus, and esophagus
Simple columnar epithelium is found
intestinal lining
Simple cuboidal epithelium is found in areas who main function is secretion
thyroid gland
stratified can be used with only ___ and ___
squamous, cuboidal
stratified cuboidal epithelium can be found in the
sweat glands
tisse that appears to be stratified but isn't
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is found in the
upper respiratory tract
all cells that secrete something
cells that secrete their products into a duct are called
exocrine glands
secrete their products directly to the bloodstream
endocrine glands
types of connective tissue (6):
bone, adipose, tendon, ligaments, cartilage, and blood
type of cells that secrete a large amount of non-living matrix (basement membrane)
connective tissu
function and nature of each type of connective tissue is based on the nature of its ____
the ECM contains fibers including (3)
collagen, elastin, and reticular
fibers that are made of protein
this type of fiber has a whitish appearance
this type of fiber is not elastic and does not tear easily when pulled
type of fiber that is comprised of long threads of the protein elastin
type of fiber that is rubbery in consistency and complements collagen
type of fiber that are yellowish in appearance
these fibers can restore their shape after being stretched
fiber that is comprised of collagen and is attatched to collagen
fiber that is thin and branched
fibers that form a tightly-woven sheet joining connective tissue to adjacent tissue
very thin and delicate tissue that is used to hold organs in place and bind epithelial tissue to underlying tissue
loose (areolar) connective tissue
type of connective tissue that contains all three fiber types
loose areolar connective tissue
The two major cell types found in loose areolar connective tissue are :
macrophages and fibroblasts
cells that secrete protein of the ECM
phagocytic, amoeboid cells that function on the immune system
tissues of this type have no distinct arrangement of fibers
loose areolar connective tissue
specialized type of loose connective tissue in which adipocytes enlarge and store lipids
adipose (fat) connective tissue
type of tissue that insulates against heat loss, pads against injury, and provides nutrients storage
adipose (fat) connective tissue
matrix in this type of tissue if a thick interlacing matted network of collagen fibers in parallel bundles
Fibrous/Dense Connective Tissue
Fibrous/Dense Connective Tissue can be grouped into two groupings:
Regular and Irregular
Fibrous/Dense Connective Tissue that has a more tightly packed appearance
Dense Regular
tends to have fibers in interwoven bundles and has more space betwen them
Dense Irregular
tendons and ligaments are types of
dense regular tissues
are not elastic , but are flexible cable like cords that connect skeletal muscles to bone
are somewhat elastic and connect bone to bone
dense irregular connective tissue can be found in areas such as
the dermis layer of the skin
composes the embryonic, supporting skeleton of vertebrates
has very dense collagen fibers
collagen fibers that make up cartilage are embedded in a rubbery matrix called
chondroitin sulfate
found in small chambers/spaces of lacuna
secrete chondroitin sulfate and collagen
specilized form of dense connective tissue
three types of cartiliage
elastic, hyaline, and fibrocartilage
type of cartilage that is characterized by the high number of elastic fibers present
elastic cartilage
elastic cartilage is found in areas that need flexible support such as the
esophagous and ears
type of cartilage that is characterized by lack of elastin fibers
Hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage is found in areas that need a more rigid support such as the
trachea, ends of long bones, and ends of ribs
type of cartilage that is characterized by a scattering of chondrocytes throughout collagenous fibers
type of cartilage with a wavy appearance
fibrocartilage is found in the
inter-verterbral discs
mineralized connective tissue
bone secretes a ____ throughout life
calcified matrix
cells that build bone tissue
calcium salts make the bone ___ while collagen fibers keep it from being to ____
hard, brittle
channels running through the matrix of bone
Haversian canals
Haversian canals contain
blood vessels and nerves
calcified rings located concentrically about the Haversian canal
3 types of cells in bone tissue:
osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes
function in bone degradation
osteoblasts become osteocytes once they become trapped in the ___
cells that maintain bone tissue and reside in spaces known as lacuna
cell extensions that connect lacuna
collective term for a Haversian canal and its surrounding lamella
type of bone that does not have true osteons as seen in compact bones
spongy bones
irregular latticework of thin plates of bone inside spongy bone
marrow that is responsible for erythrocyte production
reb marrow
the matrix of blood is liquid and is called
cells of the blood that carry oxygen
type of tissue that is comprised of microfilaments that when stimulated by nerve impulses, contract
muscle tissue
three types of muscle tissue
skeletal (voluntary), cardiac, and smooth
makes up large muscles masses which attatch to the bones
skeletal (striated/voluntary)
skeletal muscle is under ___ control
fastest type of muscle w/ respect to contaction
skeletal muscle
cells of this type of muscle are cylindrical in shape
skeletal, cardiac
this type of muscle has light and dark alternating bands, perpendicular to the length of the cell (fiber)
skeletal, cardiac
muscle that has a striated appearance
small, longitudanal, parallel, contractile fibers that are composed of the proteins, actin and myosin
fibers of this type of muscle are unbranched and multinucleated
type of muscle found in the walls of the heart
type of muscle that is unique in that it has branched fibers
cardiac muscle
branched fibers of cardiac muscle are joined by ___ which help speed the relaying of the stimulus from cell to cell
intercalated discs
the fibers of this muscular tissue can contain up to two , centrally located nuceli
muscle tissue that does not exhibit any cross striations
cells of this type of muscle are spindle shaped (have tapered ends)
smooth muscle
muscle type that is found primarily in the walla of the alimentary, genital and urinary tracts as well as the walls of arteries and veins
smooth muscle
contractions of this tissue are slower than skeletal or cardiac, but can stay contracted longer
smooth muscle
single, elongated nucleus is located on each fiber of this type of tissue
smooth muscle
the fibers that make up this type of muscle are arranged so that the ends lie next to each other and form sheets
smooth muscle
major cell of nervous tissue
basic functional unit of the nervous system and are specialized for conducting electrochemical, nerve impulses
neuron consists of of 3 major parts:
dendrites, axons, and cell body (soma)
part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and most of the cell's organelles
cell body (soma)
two types of cytoplasmic extensions of the cell body:
dendrites and axons
responsible for conducting the stimulus into the cell body
conducts impulse away from the cell body
make up nerve fibers
axons and dendrites