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220 Cards in this Set

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waxy covering that retards water loss
cuticle
gas exchange is made possible via openings in the leaves called
stomata
provides internal support to a land plant
vascular system
fertilized egg
zygote
female part of plant where zygote is retained
archegonium
make up the vascular system of the plant
xylem and phloem
Phyla of Non-vascular Spore-bearing (Seedless) plants
Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, Anthocerophyta
Gametophyte is dominant stage of life cycle
Bryophytes
have flagellated sperm
Bryophytes
most of these types of plants do not have vascular tissue
Bryophytes
plants in this group have no true roots, stems, or leaves
Bryophytes
plants in this group have root-like hairs that limit the plant's size
Bryohphytes
plants in this group do not contain lignin
Bryophytes
plants in this group are not well adapted to land
Bryophytes
plants in this group have no waxy cuticle to retard water loss
Bryophytes
plants in this group have flagellated sperms
Bryophytes
plants in this group have spores that are dispersed in the wind
Bryophytes
haploid stage of plant life cycle
gametophyte
diploid stage of plant life cycle
sporophyte
common name for this phylum is "mosses"
Byrophyta
plants in this phylum have a "stem-like" appearance
Bryophyta
Mnium [Moss] Antheridia phylum
Phylum Bryophyta
Mnium [Moss] archegonia
Phylum Bryophyta
Moss protonema
Phylum Bryophyta
Moss capsule-Polytrichum
Phylum Bryophyta
Sphagnum leaf
Phylum Bryophyta
plants in this phylum are often called liverworts
Phylum Hepatophyta
plants in this phylum are probably most like the first land plants
Phylum Hepatophyta
plants in this phylum have a flattened leafy like appearance
Phylum Hepatophyta
plants in this phylum have a distinct top and bottom
Phylum Hepatophyta
plants in this phylum reproduce sexually like a moss
Phylum Hepatophyta
plants in this phylum can also reproduce asexually by producing gemmae
Phylum Hepatophyta
cup-like strucures which can form a new plant asexually
gemmae
plants in this phylum are more primitive than mosses
Phylum Hepatophyta
plants in these phyla are homosporous
Phylum Hepatophyta, and Phylum Anthocerophyta
Marchantia [Liverworts] antheridium
Phylum Hepatophyta
Marchantia [Liverwort] archegonium
Phylum Hepatophyta
plants in this phylum are often called hornworts
Phylum Anthocerophyta
plants in this phylum are more closely related to vascular plants
Phylum Anthocerophyta
vascular spore-bearing (seedless) plants are grouped into this clade
Tracheophytes
diploid sporophyte is dominant life cycle of plants in this clade
Tracheophytes
Plants in this clade are much better adapted to land than Bryophytes due to vascular tissue
Tracheophytes
Plants in this clade are divided into two groupings: non-seed (spore bearing) and seed bearing
Tracheophytes
plants in this clade have lignin in secondary cell walls for added support
Tracheophytes
most plants in this clade have true roots, stems, and leaves
Tracheophytes
the name of this clad comes from the presence of tracheids
Tracheophytes
plants in this phylum are often called "club moss or ground pine"
Phylum Lycophyta
plants in this phylum have gametophyte that are dependent on symbiotic fungi
Phylum Lycophyta
term used to describe a plant that uses another structure, usually another plant, for support
epiphytic
some plants in this phylum are epiphytic
Phylum Lycophyta
horizontal stems
rhizoids
plants in this phylum have rhizoids
Phylum Lycophyta
plants in this phylum have flagellated sperm
Phylum Lycophyta
Plants in these phyla are homosporous
Phylum Lycophyta and Phylum Pterophyta
Ferns are part of this phylum
Phylum Pterophyta
plants in this phylum are incompletely adapated to land
Phylum Pterophyta
plants in this phylum have gametophytes that are dependent on water (swimming flagellated sperm)
Phylum Pterophyta
these types of plants have rhizomes from which leaves and roots grow
Ferns (Phylum Pterophyta)
Plants in Phylum Pterophyta [ferns] have leaves that are called
fronds
Immature fronds are called
fiddleheads
xylem tissue of these plants have tracheids but no vessel-elements
Ferns
these plants produce spores on sori
Ferns
structures on the undersides of the fronds where spores are produced
sori
The gametophyte of these plants are freeliving
Ferns
these types of plants have asperm and egg on same plant, which usually mature at different times to reduce the chance of self-fertilization
Ferns
Fern sori slide
Phylum Pterophyta
slide (Fern antheridia/archegonium)
Phylum Pterophyta
slide: Fern young sporophyte
Phylum Pterophyta
Horsetails are included in this phylum
Phylum Pterophyta
Equisetum is part of this phylum
Phylum Pterophyta (Horsetail)
this type of plant was called "scouring rushes" by pioneers due to the abrasiveness of silica in cell wall
Horsetail (Phylum Pterophyta)
Whisk Ferns are a part of this phylum
Phylum Pterophyta
plant type in Phylum Pterophyta that lacks true roots and leaves
Whisk Ferns
plant in Phylum Pterophyta that has appearance of green stem
Whisk Ferns
plants in this clade have only tracheids; no vessel elements in xylem
Gymnosperms
Dermal tissue includes
epidermis, periderm
Vascular tissue includes
Xylem and phloem
vascular tissue that is dead at maturity
xylem
vascular tissue that transports water
xylem
2 cell types found in xylem
tracheids, and vessel elements
vascular tissue that transports sucrose and some mineral ions
phloem
2 types of cells found in phloem:
sieve tube cells, companion cells
coordinate function of sieve tube cells
companion cells
dermal tissue that forms cork and cork cambium
periderm
replaces epidermis in secondary growth
periderm
tissue whose general function is protection but can have a more specific function
epidermis
single layer of tightly packed cells, "skin" of plant, covers leaves, roots and stems
epidermis
dead dermal tissue
periderm
dermal tissue that come sfrom ground meristem
periderm
cells of vascular tissue that have no nuclei
sieve-tube cells
tissue that is usually made up of parenchyma cells
groud tissue
located between dermal and vascular tissue
ground tissues
tissue that does photosynthesis, storage and supports
ground tissue
ground tissue located outside the vascular tissue
cortex
ground tissue located inside the vascular tissue
pith
growth continues as long as the organism is alive
indeterminate growth
growth stops after the organism has reached a certain size
determinate growth
take a year or less to go from germination to flowering to death
annuals
generally live two years; vegetative growth during 1st year, flowering during 2nd year
biennials
live for many years
perennials
die not from old age, but from disease or injury
perennials
protects the apical meristem and secretes slimy substance to help lubricate root
root cap
growth of this region is by mitosis
zone of cell division
cells here take in water and elongate
zone of elongation
major tissue types present in this zone contain root hairs and lateral roots
zone of cell differentiation (zone of cell maturation)
includes xylem, phloem, and pericycle (also pith in monocots)
stele
has one cotyledon
monocot
has two cotyledons
dicot
parallel leaf veination
monocot
net-like veination
dicot
flowers in multiples of 3's
monocots
flowers in multiples of 4's or 5's
dicots
bundles of vascular tissue are scattered throughout the stem
monocot
bundles of vascular tissue are arranged in a cross type shape with phloem b/w the arms of xylem in the stem
dicot
in the root, bundles of xylem located in a ring w/ smaller bundles of phloem b/w pith in center stele
monocot
in the root, xylem centrally located in stele, arranged in cross type of shape w/ phloem b/w arms of xylem
dicot
herbaceous in form
monocot
either herbaceous or woody in form
dicot
one opening in pollen
monocot
three openings in pollen
dicot
lengthening of stems and roots
primary growth
increase in thickness of roots and stems
secondary growth
examples of monocots
grasses, grains, coconut palms, lillies, and orchids
examples of dicots
oak trees, roses, apple trees, kudzu, dogwoods, beans, poison oak, mistletoe, venus' fly trap
the stem of a monocot is arranged fom outside to inside as:
epidermis, ground tissue, vascular bundles (scattered throughout)
stem of eudicot is arranged are arranged from outside to inside as:
epidermis, cortex, vascular bundles (arranged around a central pith)
divides to form secondary xylem and phloem
cambium
non-functional center of tree that is made up of older xylem
heartwood
newer xylem that forms part of tree external to heartwood
sapwood
makes up the bulk of the tree
Xylem
openings in epidermis that are regulated by guard cells
stomata
regulate gas exchange and transpiration
stomata
regulate opening and closing of stomata
guard cells
two types of mesophyll
palisade and spongy
directly beneath upper epidermis where photosynthesis takes place
palisade mesophyll
directly beneath the lower epidermis
spongy mesophyll
contains sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
complete flowers
are missing one of the parts listed for a complete flower
incomplete flower
have both stamens and carpels/pistils
perfect flowers
missing one of the two structures of a perfect flower
imperfect flower
have both stamens and carpels/pistil in one flower
monoecious
have the stamens on one flower and the carpels/pistils on another
dioecious
example of multiple fruit
pineapple
example of pome- fruit
apple, pear
drupe- fruit
peach, plum
legume- fruit
green beans
hespiridium- fruit
orange, lemons, limes
pepo- fruit
squash
berry- fruit
tomato
ripened ovaries of plants
fruits
these ___ are parts of plants like leaves, stems, or roots
vegetables
feeding method of fungi
heterotroph
feeding method of animalia
heterotroph
feeding method of plants
autotroph
uses extra-cellular digestion
absorptive heterotrophs
feeds on dead material
saprobic
feeds on living organisms
parasitic
feeding modes on fungi:
saprobic, parasitic, mutualistic, predators
fungi are ___ stage dominant
haploid
fungi cell walls are made up of
chitin
vegetative bodies that are tubular in shape
hyphae
filamentous mat of hyphae
mycelium
kingdom that is important in chemical recycling
fungi
straw-like feeding tube which is inserted into host cell in fungi
haustoria
root-like anchoring hyphae to substrate
rhizoid
wall-like structures that separate cells in some fungi
septae
cells that are multinucleated
coenocytic
unique stage in which 2 distinct nuclei are in the same cell
dikaryon
stage w/ different nuclei remaining in separate parts of the same mycelium
heterokaryotic stage
fungi have asexual reproduction by ___
spores
kingdom that undergoes sexual reproduction in unfavorable conditions
FUngi
Phylum of fungi that are often found in lakes and soil
Phylum Chytridiomycota
some fungi in this phylum are saprobes, while others are parasites
Phylum Chytridiomycota
only phylum of fungi that has flagellated spores called zoospores
Phylum Chytridiomycota
flagellated spores
zoospores
fungi in this phylum are often called "black bread molds"
Phylum Zygomycota
fungi in this phylum are coenocytic
Phylum Zygomycota
major group of myorrhizal fungi
Phylum Zygomycota
species of fungi that can aim its spores towards favorable conditions
pilobolus
phylum that forms a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction
Phylum Zygomycota
structure that freeze resistant and resistant to dessication
zygosporangium
Slide: Rhizopus
Phylum Zygomycota
phylum of fungi often called "sac/cup fungi"
Phylum Ascomycota
Largest and most diverse group of fungi
Phylum Ascomycota
phylum of fungi found mostly in marine, terrestial, and freshwater habitats
Phylum Ascomycota
Phylum Ascomycota includes:
yeasts, truffles, morels, powdery mildews, and ergot
natural form of LSD
ergot (on rye)
phylum that is the main fungus in lichens
Phylum Ascomycota
have symbiotic relationship with cyanobacteria or green algae
lichen
Unicellular yeats in this phylum produce by budding
Phylum Ascomycota
asexual (Imperfect) reproduction in this phylum results in conidia
Phylum Ascomycota
Sexual (Perfect) reproduction results in the formation of an ascocarp in this phylum
Phylum Ascomycota
structure that contains ascospores
asci
3 types of ascocarps
cleistothecium, perithecium, apothecium
ascocarp is completely surrounded by fungal tissue; "no openings"
cleistrothecium
a "closed" ascocarp having a narrow opening, usually at the top
Perithecium
a "open" form of ascocarp
Apothecium
Slide: Peziza
Phylum Ascomycota
Peziza has this form of ascocarp
apothecium
Slide: Sordaria
Phylum Ascomycota
Sordaria has this form of ascocarp
perithecium
Slide: Scizosaccharomycetes
Phylum Ascomycota
slide: Penicillium
Phylum Ascomycota
slide: Aspergillus
Phylum Ascomycota
fungi in this phylum are often called "club fungi"
Phylum Basidiomycota
Phylum that includes bracket/shelf fungi, toadstools, mushrooms, smuts, rust, and puff balls
Phylum Basidiomycota
phylum in which asexual reproduction is much less common than in other phyla
Phylum Basidiomycota
phylum in which sexual reproduction results in the formation of basidiospores produced on club like structures called basidia
Phylum Basidiomycota
Slide: Coprinus
Phylum Basidiomycota
Informal taxon (clade) of fungi
Deuteromycota
Clade of fungi commonly called the "imperfect fungi"
Deuteromycota
Slide: Candida
Deuteromycota
causative agent of some yeast infections
Candida
fungus gives the overall shape and accounts for most of the mass of a
lichen
algal layer of a lichen is usually ____
internal
fungal layer of lichen is usually___
external
fungal layer of lichen helps____
acquire materials
algal layer provides ___ from photosynthesis
carbohydrates
slide: Lichen thallus
Lichen
3 types of lichens
crustose, foliose, fructiose