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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difference between public relations and advertising?
-PR is a management function
-advertising is a marketing function
what is publicity?
the placing of stories in the mass media
what are the 2 types of publics and examples, when it comes to PR?
-internal publics (employers, managers, labor unions)
-external publics (consumers, govt,dealers, suppliers)
what 3 main things define PR?
1.PR involves working w/ public opinion
2.PR is concerned w/ communication (raises positive awareness)
3.PR is a management function
who was Ivy Lee?
was said to be the first PR pioneer and also critizied the rockefellas (like a muckraker)
during WWI, this was said to help legitimize the feild of pr and was set up by president wilson...?
creel committee
Following WWI, Edward Bernays was credited for what?
writing the first book of public relations, "crystallizing public opinion"
what effects did the depression have on pr?
-big businesses established their own pr departments to gain public favor
-pple felt better bout govt, when pres. used radio stations to answer questions
who were spin doctors?
-more politically oriented and made sure that the politician looked good to the public
-always put a positive spin on things
what were the 4 reasons PR grew in the 2nd half of 20th century?
1.corps. realized that they have a social responsibility to serve the public

2.consumerism had caused corporations & govt. agencies to be more responsive and communicate w/ customers or clients

3.growing complexity of modern corps. and govt agencies has made it difficult to get messages across w/o a specific department assigned for it

4.increasing population growthw/ more specialization and job mobility has made it easier to employ pple who focus on needs of audience foe the org.
what are the advantages of internal and external PR?
*Internal- can be @work in short notice
-has in depth knowledge about company
-operations are less costly

*External-advantage of being an objective observers
-offers more services
what are the disadvatages of internal and external PR?
*Internal- hard for them to make an objective view of the company
-have a hard time of coming up w/ fresh ideas unless new personnells are added freq.

*External- are expensive
-takes time for them to learn inner workings of their clients operations
-involvement may cause resentment among staff
what are the 10 major areas in which PR is practiced?
2.Govt. and politics
5.non-profit organizations
6.professional associations
7.enterainment & sports
8. international pr (CNN)
9.politics (elections)
10.crisis management
what are the 3 main divisions that are designed to communicate w/ both internal and external publics and state whether they are specifically int./ext.?
1.corporate communication(internal) relations (external)
3.Press Relations (deals w/ news media)
what are the 4 stages in in developing a PR campaign?
1.Info. gathering
what are the 2 stages in the "Planning" step of a PR campaign?
-strategic= general, long- range goals

-tactical= detailed, specific plans
what are the 2 methods for gathering info. about media effects?
survey and experiment
name the special kind of experiment and survey and tell what it is?
*experiment-feild experiment
feild exper.:conducted in a real life setting

*Survey-Panel Study
Panel Study: collects data from the same pple @ 2 or more different points in time
when TV is an influential force, what 3 factors are operative?
1.creation of stereotypes
2.effects of heavy viewing
3.abscense of alternative info.
what is the cultivation theory and who developed it?
-the idea that someone who watches alot of tv, thinks the world is extremely evil (heavily effected by violence being shown on tv)
-george gibbner (creator)
what are agencies of socialization?
pple & organizations who are really concerned with media on children and the socialization process
what is socialization?
the ways that you become to adopt beliefs and things u do
what are the 3 problems w/ cultivation analysis?
1.difficult to determine cause and effect
2.pple differ in ways other than their viewing habits
3.technical decisions about the way tv viewing and attitudes are measured can have a significant impact on findings (way quest. was worded)
what is the difference between mainstreaming and resonance?
*mainstreaming: differences due to cultural and social factors tend to diminish among heavy tv viewers

*resonance:a situation where the the respondants real life experience are congruent w/ those of the tv world
it was decided that children deserve special consideration from tv advertisers b/c...?
1.vulnerable audience
2.decieved the effects of special selling techniques effect
what is agenda setting?
where media doesn't tell u what to think, but what to think about
under agenda setting, what are the 2 directions of research intrest?
framing and agenda building
what is framing and building agenda?
*framing:the general way a news topic is treated by the media (tell u how to thnk bout the story
*agenda build.:examines how the media build their agenda of newsworthy items
what are the 2 theories on the effects of watching tv?
catharsis and stimulation
what is the def. of the catharsis and stimulation theory?
*catharsis theory:the idea that a person who sees violent tv programs might end up less likely to commit violence

*stimulation:argues that seeing violence will actually stimulate an individual to behave more violently
what was Banduras experiment?
pre school children were shown films of adults being violent to a large doll and when the kids got put in that same situation they were far more aggresive than the kids who did not see the video
what is feild experiments?
pple are studied in their typical enviroment b/c they will react more naturally
prosocial behavior?
actions such as sharing, cooperation, developing self- control
2 effectst that have direct bearing on voter choice are...?
1.reinforcement- the stregnthening or support of existing attitudes and opinions

2.crystallization:the sharpening and elaboration of vaguely held attitudes. (effective for those who approach a campaign undecided)