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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why do a majority of women smoke?
TO SUPPRESS THEIR APPETITE
What are the top 3 cancer killers in men?
LUNG 31%
PROSTATE 9%
COLON RECTAL 9%
What are the top 3 cancer killers in women?
LUNG 26%
BREAST 15%
COLON 10%
Define benign and malignant.
BENIGN- TYPICALLY DOESN'T SPREAD

MALIGNANT- CANCER CELLS SPREAD TO OTHER BODY PARTS
A light skinned female living in Kenya should take ---- during her pregnancy in order to build healthy bones
FOLIC ACID
A dark skinned person in Canada should be concerned about deficiency in ----.
VITAMIN D
What is the deadliest skin cancer?
MELANOMA
What is the first and second most frequent types of skin cancer?
SQUAMOS CELL CARCINOMA

AND

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA
If you have Melanoma, what are your chances of dying?
75%
What are the ABCD's of skin cancer?
ASSYMETRICAL
BORDER
COLOR
DIAMETER
---- is the formation of cancer and ---- ---- allows cancer to spread.
CARCINOGENESIS

PROTEINAISE ENZYME
Define carcinogen.
CANCER CAUSING AGENT
Define mutation.
CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQUENCE
Define mutagen.
ANYTHING THAT IS GOING TO CAUSE MUTATION
What percent of lung cancer is caused by smoking?
87%
What are the four stages of the formation of cancer?
1) MUTATION
2) PROTO-ONCOGENE BECOMES ONCOGENE
3) SIGNALING PROTEIN MALFUNCTIONS
4) INAPPROPRIATE CELL GROWTH
What is a proto-oncogene?
A TRIGGER OF CANCER, GENERALLY WHEN SPECIFIC MUTATIONS ALTER ITS STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION
In program cell death, gene p53 cannot repair the damaged cell then --- occurs.
APTOSIS
How long after you first start smoking can symptoms of cancer being to occur?
20-22 years
What is the main site where lung cancer originates?
PRIMARY BRONCHI
What are the air sacs of the lungs called where gas exchange occurs?
ALVEOLI
List and define three types of traditional cancer therapies.
RADIATION- CAUSES CACER TO CELLS TO MUTATE AND UNDERGO APTOSIS

CHEMO- DRUGS KILL CELLS BY DAMAGING THE DNA

ANGIOSTAIN- STOPS ANGIOGENESIS
What is angiogenesis?
RECRUITMENT OF BLOOD VESSELS BY A TUMOR
What is the difference between an antibody and an antigen?
ANTIGEN IS FOREIGN TO THE BODY, TRIGGERS, AN IMMUNE RESPONSE

ANTIBODY IS A DEFENSIVE PROTEIN THAT IDENTIFY AND ATTACK ANTIGENS
What types of cells are our body comprised of?
EUKARYOTES
What kinds of cells are bacteria?
PROKARYOTES
When a small change in the inluenza virus happens, a ---- --- -occurs.

When a large change in the --- --- occurs, a --- --- occurs.
ANTIGENIC DRIFT

ANTIGENIC SHIFT
The influenza virus needs to be changed every year because of ----.
ANTIGENIC DRIFT
Why does the influenza virus cause a pandemic every 10 - 40 years?
ANTIGENIC SHIFT
The Hong Kong flu virus of 1968 was due to inluezna virus H3N2. This mutation was due to ----.
ANTIGENIC SHIFT
Which cells are associated with cell mediated immunity?
T CELLS
Which cell orchestrates the immune response?
HELPER T CELLS
Which cell brings about the end of the immune response?
SUPRESSOR T CELLS
Which gene of influezna is responsible for release out of the cell so it can infect others?
NEURAMINIDAISE (N)
Adhesion factors in influezna viruses take the form of ----
SURFACE SPIKES
Which gene of influenza provides the key to allow the virus in?
HEMAGLITIN (H)
Who is th creator of the smallpox vaccine?
EDWARD JENNER
Who discovered penicillin the the 1940s?
ALEXANDER FLEMING
What percent of antibiotics made in America go directly into farm animals?
55%
Sleeping less than ---- hours or more than ---- hours is associated with 1.7 times greater mortality and risk of death.
6 1/2 HOURS

9 HOURS
What does MRSA stand for and what is a common cause of?
Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccus Aureus

boils, Impetigo and abscesses
Which b cells secrete antibodies?
PLASMA B CELLS
What types of cells does AIDS attack?
HELPER T CELLS
--- engulfes and kills bacteria.
PHAGOCYTES
Plasma is comprised of ---% water.
92%
What shoud your white blood cell leukocytes be?
4,000-11,000
Neutrophils and phagocytes are primarily ----.
BACTERIUM
---- immunity provides long lasting protection against a diesease causing virus wheras ----- immunity is short lived.
ACTIVE


PASSIVE
Which attack chemicals deals with bacterium and which one deals with viruses?
BACTERIA- COMPLEMENT

VIRUS- INFERON (IFN)
What is released during an inflammation reaction?
HISTAMINE
What are the bodies first strike reactions against infection?
MACROPHAGE, INFLAMMATION, FEVER
What is the fire maker from within called?
ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN - FEVER
What is the vector that carries Lyme disease?
NYMPH
White blood cells that takes part in inflamatory response?
NEUTROPHIL
T and B cells.
LYMPHOCYTE
Immature macorphage
MONOCYTE
Destroys anitgen - antibody complexes
EOSINOPHILS
Releases histamine, promotes blood flow to injured tissue.
BASOPHILS