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21 Cards in this Set

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1. Innate immunity
2. 5 components of innate immunity
1. Refers to general, non-specific protection
2.1 Skin
2.2 Tears, saliva, & blood containing lysozyme that destroys bact cell walls
2.3 Acidity of stomach
2.4 Macrophages & neutrophils phagocytize
2.5 Complement system, a group of about 20 blood proteins that nonspecifically bind to surface of foreign cells & destroy
Humoral immunity
Refers to specific protection by proteins in plasma aka antibodies (Ab) or immunoglobulins (Ig)
Antibodies
Specifically recognize & bind to microorg. Composed of
1. light & heavy chains (polypeptides) joined by disulfide bonds.
2. Constant (determines Ab class) & variable (gives specificity of antibodies) region.
** IgG (most common) IgA IgM IgD IgE
1. Antigen (Ag)
2. Would Ab against cytoplasmic bact protein help remove the bact?
1. Molecule Ab binds to (viral proteins, bact walls, toxins)
2. No, cytoplasm of bact never accessible to Ab in plasma. Ab only recognize Ag on surfaces.
1. How does fitting of Ag determined?
2. If Ag binding site is small, can Ab recognize large proteins as Ag?
1. By the variable region of Ab.
2. Yes, but they recognize a small part of a protein, not the whole thing.
1. Antigens
2. Epitope
3. Carrier
1. Large molecules w/ many diff recognition sites for diff Ab.
2. Small site Ab recognizes within a larger molecule
3. Large antigenic protein that binds small molecules, helping to produce Ab.
3 things that contribue to removal of Ag from body when Ab binds to Ag.
1. Directly inactivates the Ag (ex: prevents virus from binding to cells).
2. Induces phagocytosis by macrophages/neutrophils
3. Activates complement system to puncture Ag membrane & lyse it
1. B cells
2. Where are immature B cells derived from?
1. A lymphocyte that produces Ab. Makes only one type of Ab protein, which recognizes many Ag.
2. Stem cells in the bone marrow
Reason for diverse B cell genes, thus diverse types
The genes are assembled by recombination from many small segments during B cell development.
2 types B cells differentiate into when Ag binds to Ab of the immature B cell.
1. Plasma cells that actively produce/secrete Ab protein into plasma
2. Memory cells that remain dormant & wait for reappearance of same Ag.
**This method of differentiation: clonal selection
1. Does every cell of the body possess the same copy of genome?
No, recombination during B/T cell development makes an exception
2 key features of clonal selection in B cells
1. Recombination during development to produce many clones, each w/ single Ag recognition specificity (beginning).
2. Selection of a clone out of many clones based on specific recognition of Ag by preexisting Ab genes.
1. Primary immune response
2. Secondary immune response
1. First time encounter of an Ag, taking a week or more for B cell proliferation & Ab secretion.
2. Swifter/stronger; disease symptoms never develop (immuned). Memory cells present.
Vaccination
Exposes the immune system to viral or bact Ag, building up a 2nd. immune response
T helper cells
**T=thymus, where T cells come from
CD4 cells; activate B cells, T killer cells, etc. Central controller of whole immune response. Communicates by releasing (hormones) lymphokines & interleukins
**Host of HIV
1. T killer (cytotoxic T) cells
2. T-cell receptor
1. CD8 cells; destroy abnormal host cells
1. Virus-invected host cells
2. Cancer cells
3. Foreign cells (organ transplant)
** Only B cells make Ab

2. Protein on T-cell surface binding Ag
**Diff T-cells & receptors: Random
1. Autoimmune reaction
2. Role of thymus in T-cell development is to
3. T-cell clone
1. Immune system attacks the host due to T cells specific for self Ag
2. Destroy all self-specific T cells
3. Survives thymus & proliferate if stimulated by Ag, producing identical T cells specific for particular Ag.
1. Way T cells recognize bad cells
2. Crutial cell surface protein
3. MHC I
1. By examing proteins on its surface
2. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Allows T helpers to check cellular contents
3. Found on surface of every cell in body; randomly pick up peptides from inside of cell & display on cell surface.
1. MHC II
2. Antigen presenting cells (APC)
1. Present only in certain cells aka antigen-presenting cells (macrophages & B cells).
2. Phagocytize particles or cells, chop up, & display fragments using MHC II.
T helpers to recognize them -> activate itself -> stimulate specific T killer cells & activate B cells -> active B cells secret specific Ab.
1. Bone marrow
2. Cell giving rise to all blood cells
3. Spleen f(x)
4. Thymus
1. Site of synthesis of all cells of blood.
2. Bone marrow stem cell
3. Site of immune cell interactions; filters blood & destroys aged RBCs
4. Site of T cell maturation
1. Tonsils
2. Appendix
1. Lymphatic tissues in back of throat that catch pathogens from respiration/ingestion.
2. Structure/f(x) similar to tonsils