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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of info
memory
deals w/ info about space, time, frequency, and other fundamental factors of existence; takes very little or no effort
automatic processing
immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.” This is a very brief thought, something that your mind is planning to remember.
sensory memory
conscious memory, which can hold about seven items for a short time; also called working memory.” Remember the 7 + or – 2 rule. You can remember between 5-9 items well. Generally lasts minutes.
short term memory
is the relatively permanent and unlimited capacity memory system into which information from short-term memory may pass.”
long term memory
Anything else takes some conscious effort or practice to remember
effortful processing
By distributing the study time, information can be retained longer and with more accuracy than by cramming
spacing effect
the finding that people often remember the first and last items in a list better than they do middle items.”
serial position effect
At certain synapses the neural transmissions are more efficient
long term potentiation
memory of skills, preferences, and dispositions; nondeclarative
implicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that are consciously known
explicit memory
area in brain for explicit memories
hippocampus
area in brain for implicit memories
cerebellum
the ability to retrieve information not in conscious awareness.”
recall
a measure of memory in which one need only identify previously learned information.”
recognition
measures the amount of time saved when previously learned information is learned for a second time.”
relearning
mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people
concepts
methodical and logical rules for solving problems; they are often laborious and inefficient.”
algorithms
based on rules of thumb
heuristics
an obstacle to problem solving in which people search for information that confirms their preconceptions
confirmation bias
an inability to approach a familiar problem in a new way
fixation
whereby a person is unable to perceive unusual functions for familiar objects.
functional fixedness
the tendency to judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they represent particular prototypes
representativeness heuristic
we base our judgments on how readily information comes to mind.” For example: the more often you see something, the more likely you think it will occur.
availability heuristic
how people state information. Referring to something from its positive side as opposed to its negative side can have a significant impact on interpretation
framing
We more easily see the illogic of conclusions that run counter to our beliefs than of those that agree with our beliefs.” The tendency to let beliefs interfere with logic
belief bias
our tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence.”
belief perseverance
study of the social influences that can impact how a person acts in different situations
social psychology
when our thoughts and behaviors don’t coincide, we experience tension. To relieve this tension, we bring our attitudes into line with our actions.”
cognitive dissonance
conformation in order to obtain approval
normative social influence
conformation in order to gain information
informational social influence
people perform better on simple tasks when people around them are doing the same thing, but poorly on more complex tasks in the same situation
social facilitation
People feel more anonymous as part of the group and lack the individual accountability that is usual present, thus inhibiting performance
social loafing
when individuals feel aroused, anonymous, and less self-conscious. Could be represented in the behavior of a mob.
deindividualization
the tendency for thoughts, ideas, and attitudes to become prevalent when around similar members of a group.
group polarization
unrealistic group decision making; desire for unanimity outweighs the risks
groupthink
Their expectations may cause them to act in ways that trigger the expected results
self-fulfilling prophecies
a stoic minority has the potential to change the mindset of the majority, even though outnumbered.
minority influence