Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Studied anatomy, actions of muscles, bones
Devised accounts of principles of levers as involved in movement
Distinguished motor and sensory nerves
Described origins and intersections of muscles by detailing the motion of a joint. Paintings show his knowledge of human anatomy
Leonardo da Vinci
Is called the Father of biomechanics because he related muscular movements to mechanical principles
He studied electrical potentials in nerve and muscle tissue and is considered father of experimental neurology
Luigi Galvani
Studied role of reflexes in control of voluntary movements
-studied reciprocal innervation- when one muscle group is activated the opposing muscle group is turned off
-concentrated on studying nerve muscle interaction and concerned with neurophysiological processes that result in the movement
proposed central intermittency and single channel hypothesis
Humans process information in discrete bursts rather than continuously
Central Intermittency
While one set of info is being processed, processing of a new set of info is delayed
Single Channel
Derived an index of difficult for aiming tasks that considered both movement extent and target size, decreases in target size and increases in movement increased the index of difficulty
Fitt's Law
Father of modern scientific psychology, studied sensation, perception, use of reaction time
Wilhem Wundt
started behaviorism and studied operant conditioning a type of learning in which a person learns responses to get a reward or to avoid punishment.
APA- emphasized need for formal programs of research on the education of children, founder of educational psychology
founder of motor learning and control
study of structures that produce diverse movements we are capable of executing.
Concerns of this study- focus is on interaction of components of human system as they related to producing movement, way all systems interact together to provide opportunity for efficient movement is of greatest interest to scientist. Muscles skeletal system and nervous system all interact
Scientific study in this area- dissection of a small animal to see bone structure, etc
Anatomical Kinesiology
-discipline that applies mechanical laws to musculoskeletal system of human body and the implements used in sport and work
-mechanical laws describe how forces affect the motion of bodies, and measurements of force are determined to assess the impact of the resulting forces on the movement sequence
-understanding biomechanics can help to prevent injury and have movement efficiency
Concerns of biomechanics
-kinematics is concerned with providing an appropriate description of a movement with respect to time and space, to achieve description of whether movement was efficient biomechanist tries to delineate both the kinematics and kinetics of motion
-movements are combo of two categories of motion termed linear and angular motion. Linear motion is when all parts of body move in one direction and angular motion is when body undergoes circular motion
-study of physiological processes that provide basis for our capacity to move
-study nerve muscle heart and veins and lung system and how these systems respond to physical demands causes physiologist to study how body produces energy and eliminates waste products. Translate findings into better methods of training and facts that affect health as well

Concerns of exercise physiologists
-concerned with the processes that provide the fuel for movement
-study changes during exercise and training to lungs and blood system
-also concerned with what will increase or decrease your capacity to perform
Exercise Physiology
Fitness and Health
-concerned with the interaction of exercise health and nutrition
-evaluate health risk factors and recommend lifestyle changes that will reduce and individuals chance for disease
-clinical arm of exercise physiology

-to increase longevity of life
-moderate regular exercise reduces an individuals risk of cardiovascular disease by 25% or more
-also concerned with early detection of disease, functioning of heart, etc
-prescribe exercise programs
Fitness and Health
-provides information about the changes in human movement behavior across the lifespan and the influence of these changes on motor performance

-role played by nature versus nurture during developmental process
-identification of sensitibe or critical periods
-sensitive period is when individual is susceptible to influence of a particular event. Critical period is when a movement must be acquired to achieve optimal performance
-discontinuity v. continuity
-role of individual differences in development
Motor Development
-scientific discipline concerned with study of the processes that lead to skilled movement
-by learning processes involved in skilled movement better learning environments can be devised
-want to study factors that result in learning that is adaptable to changing conditions and resistant to forgetting, and efficient in terms of cognitive demands
-There are two ways to think about it. Humans process information like a computer sensation, selection, execution, and humans process info in dynamical systems approach
-study impact of conditions on our ability to perceive information accurately and process correct decisions, and produce appropriate responses
Motor Learning and Control
-first goal is to understand effect of psychological factors on behavior in sport
-looks at influence of personality, self-efficacy and effects on adherence to physical endeavours
-interested in enhancement of psychological well-being through participation in sport or exercise programs
Sport Pyschology
-research in teacher education and research on teaching in PE, research in teacher education concentrates on examining the student, teacher and process the student and teacher engage in during the student’s training. While research on teaching in PE looks at elements involved in the teaching of movement

Sport Pedagogists have the teaching of motor skills as their primary focus as opposed to the teacher education component. 3 interests of researcher on teaching in PE include teaching effectiveness classroom ecology and student teaching cognitions. Examining teacher effectiveness is consuming biggest amount of research efforts
Sport Pedagogy