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113 Cards in this Set

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What are common and potentially hazardous conditions that firefighters must always be prepared for? (9)
Flashover conditions

Backdraft conditions

Imminent building collapse

Fire behind, below, or above the attack team

Kinks or obstructions to the hoseline

Fall hazards (holes, weak structure, etc)

Suspended on fire-weakened supports

Hazardous commodities likely to spill

Shock hazards

(p. 761)
According to NFPA 1001, those trained to the fire fighter I level must know WHAT about fire control? (6)
Principles of fire streams as applied to interior and exterior structure fires, vehicle fires, and wildland fires

Hazardous building conditions created by fire

Principles of exposure protection

Application of each size and type of attack line

Attack and control techniques for fires above, below, and at grade level

How to expose hidden fires

(p. 761)
According to NFPA 1001, those trained to the fire fighter I level must be capable of performing WHAT operations? (9)
Applying water using direct, indirect, and combination attacks

Advancing and operating charged attack lines

Attacking fires above, below, and at grade level

Attacking a passenger vehicle fire

Attacking a fire in stacked and piled materials

Extinguishing a fire in a trash container

Attacking a ground cover fire

Turning off building utilities

Locating and suppressing interior wall and subfloor fires

(p. 761)
According to NFPA 1001, those trained to the fire fighter II level must know WHAT about fire control? (5)
Most appropriate hose and nozzles for attacking various types of fires

Hazardous building conditions created by fire and fire suppression activities

Indicators of structural instability and building collapse

Effects of fire and fire suppression activities on various common building materials

Suppression techniques for various types of structure fires

(p. 761)
According to NFPA 1001, those trained to the fire fighter II level must be capable of performing WHAT operations? (5)
Choosing attack techniques for fires above, below, and at grade level

Evaluating and forecasting the growth and development of a fire

Extinguishing an ignitable liquid fire with foam

Controlling a gas cylinder fire

Coordinating an interior attack of a structure fire

(pp. 761-762)
Who is in charge on the fire scene?
The IC (incident commander)

(p. 762)
What is the opposite of "situational awareness?"
Tunnel vision. It's a condition in which firefighters become so focused on one task that they become unable to sense changes in their environment.

(p. 762)
What tools make up the minimum loadout of a fire attack team?
1) Portable radio

2) Hand light

3) Pike pole

4) Forcible entry tools

5) Hose

(p. 762)
Before entering a burning structure, what should the nozzle operator do?
Bleed air from the hose by opening the nozzle slightly, and test the nozzle's range of stream patterns.

(p. 762)
What should be done if the fire is confined to a piece of furniture?
Put out the fire and take the furniture outside for immediate overhaul.

(p. 763)
If you see fire showing in any fascia, soffit, boxed cornice, overhang, or near your secondary means of egress on the exterior, what should you do before entering the structure?
Put out the fire that's showing.

(p. 763)
What happens after the fire has been contained?
The area of origin is determined, evidence is protected, and overhaul begins.

(p. 763)
Should SCBA be worn during overhaul?
Yes.

(p. 763)
What nine factors play into hoseline selection?
Fire load

Material involved

Required reach

Number of firefighters available

Need for speed/mobility

Tactical requirements

Ease of hoseline deployment

Potential fire spread

(p. 764)
What type of stream has the best reach?
Solid

(p. 764)
Which fire stream provides good protection from radiant heat and effective cooling of hot gases, but limited reach?
Fog streams

(p. 764)
What are some byproducts of water deployed on a fire scene?
Steam

Runoff
When opening a door to a potential fire area, where should the firefighter be situated?
Low and to one side of the doorway

(p. 766)
Besides bleeding and testing the hoseline, list some other measures that should be taken before entering a structure (6)
Reading fire behavior indicators

Understanding the crew's tactical assignment

Identifying potential escape routes

Assessing forcible entry requirements

Identifying hazards

Verifying that radios are working, on the right channel

(p. 766)
How can you cool the hot gas layer?
By applying short pulses of fog. Set nozzle to 40 to 60 degree fog pattern, and fire into the hot layer in 1 to 2 second bursts. (p. 767)
How do you know that the hot gas layer is just too hot?
1) Rollover/ghosting

2) Fog sprayed into the hot gas layer returns no droplets
What is a direct attack?
Literally spraying the fire with water.

(p. 767)
What is an indirect attack?
Directing fire streams toward the ceiling via a small opening in order to generate large volumes of steam, cooling the area to prepare for a direct attack

(p. 768)
What is the biggest downside to an indirect attack?
The large volumes of steam can burn any survivors and firefighters
What is a "combination attack?"
A two-step attack involving an indirect attack followed by a direct attack.

(p. 768)
What are the three main uses for a master stream device?
Direct fire attack

Backing up handlines that are already attacking from the exterior

Exposure protection

(p. 769)
What is a master stream?
A large-caliber water stream usually supplied by siamesing two or more hoselines into a manifold device or by fixed piping that delivers 350 gpm or more.

(p. 769)
What is the optimal angle of attack when using a master stream device?
An upward-tilted angle is preferred, allowing the stream to bank off the ceiling, breaking up the stream and increasing effectiveness.

(p. 769)
What is "penciling?"
Spraying a fog stream into the hot gas layer in short bursts.

(p. 768)
What is "painting?"
Attacking combustibles near ground level with a straight stream.

(p. 769)
What are the biggest downsides to using master stream devices?
1) Once turned on, they can't be easily moved, and must be shut off in order to be moved

2) Their use results in massive water accumulation, potentially compromising building structural integrity

3) Massive runoff

4) Massive demand for water
What is the minimum recommended flow for a master stream device?
350 gpm

(p. 770)
What is the minimum hoseline requirement for supplying a master stream device?
(2) 2 1/2" lines

(p. 770)
What is the maximum recommended length of hose used to supply a master stream device, and why?
100', any more results in excessive friction loss

(p. 770)
How many firefighters does it generally take to deploy and operate master stream devices?
2 firefighters minimum for deployment, 1 firefighter for operation

(p. 770)
Can master stream devices be unmanned?
Yes, they can, if conditions are hazardous and prohibit manning the device

(p. 770)
If an unmanned master stream device begins to move, what must be done?
Pressure to the device must be lowered until movement stops

(p. 770)
What are the most common types of aerial devices?
Quints, aerial ladders, aerial platforms, and water towers

(p. 771)
What two configurations of aerial platforms are available?
Aerial ladder platforms and articulating aerial platforms.

(p. 772)
What is a "water tower?"
Water towers are engines equipped with hydraulically operated booms dedicated to applying water.

(p. 772)
Define "flammable liquid."
A liquid with a flash point of less than 100 degrees fahrenheit.

(p. 773)
Define "combustible liquid,"
Liquid with a flash point higher than 100 degrees fahrenheit, such as kerosene and vegetable oil.

(p. 773)
From a firefighting standpoint, what is the main difference between hydrocarbons and polar solvents?
Hydrocarbons do not mix with whater, polar solvents do.

(p. 773)
What known carcinogen is present in the fumes of petroleum products?
Benzene

(p. 774)
What is a BLEVE?
Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion -- this is what happens when a liquid storage vessel fails due to external heating, and the vessel explodes into two or more pieces.

(p. 774)
Firefighters must control all _____ _________ in a fuel leak area.
Ignition sources.

(p. 774)
What does increasing intensity of sound or fire from a relief valve indicate?
Imminent failure.

(p. 774)
In the case of a liquid fuel fire involving a leaking storage vessel, what should you NOT do unless the leak can be stopped?
Actually put out the fire. Just try to contain the pooling fuels. Unburned fuel may create a low-lying vapor cloud that could explode or ignite violently.

(p. 774)
What types of hydrocarbon fuels can actually be extinguished with water, and how?
Fires involving heavy oil fuels such as raw crude may be extinguished if sufficiently cooled by fog droplets.

(p. 775)
Even if water is unable to extinguish a certain type of fire, what purposes can water serve? (3)
1) Exposure protection

Water streams can be directed at fuel tanks, supporting beams, etc., to prevent heat-induced failure.

2) Mechanical tool

Water can be used to move class B fuels around, burning or not.

3) Crew protection

Crews can advance on vessels under the protection of a wide fog stream

(p. 775)
What is "plunging," and why is it a bad idea?
Plunging is firing a solid stream or straight stream into a burning liquid fuel in such a way that the stream plunges into the fuel, disturbing it, causing greater fuel vaporization and thus higher flame density.

(p. 776)
Where should class B fuels never be flushed?
Down storm drains or into sewers.

(p. 775)
When approaching a burning or heated fuel vessel, how should attack teams proceed?
Attack from a 45 degree angle under the cover of a wide fog stream, and have backup hoselines in action, cooling the vessel.

(p. 776)
What dangers are added when you're dealing with a vehicle transporting class-B fuels as opposed to dealing with a fuel storage facility?
Increased risks from traffic

Increased risks to passing motorists

Reduced water supply

Difficulty identifying products involved

Difficulty containing runoff

Weakened or damaged tanks due to impact of collision

Vehicle instability

Civilian, structure, and vehicle exposures

(p. 777)
When dealing with a fuel spill, where should apparatus be parked?
Uphill and upwind.

(p. 777)
What is natural gas?
What is its flammable range?
What acronyms describe different forms of natural gas?
Natural gas is methane, with added mercaptan to give it a distinctive odor.

Its flammable range is between 5 and 15 percent in air.

It can be stored or shipped as CNG (compressed natural gas) or in liquid form as LNG (liquid natural gas).

(p.778)
What is LPG?
What is its flammable range?
Liquified petroleum gas. Usually propane, but may be butane.

Flammable range is 1 to 10 percent.

(p. 779)
Is natural gas more or less dense than air? How about LPG?
Natural gas is less dense, so it rises. LPG is more dense so it hugs the ground.

(p. 779)
What makes LPG different from natural gas?
1) It's dense, so it hugs the ground

2) An LPG leak will form a visible cloud.

3) An LPG cloud can be dispersed with a fog stream.

(p.779)
What is the most common cause of CNG and LPG leaks?
Excavating equipment breaking a line.

(p. 779)
How do you turn off the gas supply to a building at the meter?
Turn the petcock to the "closed" position, which is at a right angle to the pipe.

(p. 780)
What is the most important step in extinguishing a class C fire?
Turning off the power.
Where will you find extraordinary electrical hazards?
Railroad locomotives, telephone relay switching stations, electrical substations.

(p. 780)
What are some reasons for avoiding shutting down power to an entire building?
Especially in high-rises, electricity is necessary for operating elevators, air-handling equipment, and other essential systems

(p. 781)
What should be used to put out fires in delicate electronic or computer equipment?
Clean agents such as Halotron

(p. 781)
If power has to be shut off to an entire building, what should be done?
The main power switch should be flipped, locked, and tagged.

(p. 781)
What is PCB?
Polychlorinated biphenyl. It's a toxic, carcinogenic compound found in old electric transformers. It's a hydrocarbon-based coolant. Treat all transformers as hazardous and PCB laden.

(p. 782)
How do you deal with a Class C fire involving a ground-level electrical transformer?
Attack it with a dry powder or CO2 extinguisher.

(p. 782)
How do you attack a pole-top transformer fire?
Generally, you let it burn. The utility company has to shut down power before anything can be done. Follow SOPs.

(p. 782)
High-voltage signs will be found when current is more than ____ volts.
600 volts

(p. 782)
Until power is disconnected, what should not be used to fight class C fires?
water.
When conducting a search in a high-voltage installation, how should a firefighter use their hands?
Use either the back of the hand or a clenched fist. This avoids the reflex action of grabbing and holding electrified objects.

(p.783)
Why do illegal drug labs and growing operations present a special fire risk?
Illegal wiring to steal electricity from adjacent properties, booby traps, volatile chemicals.

(p. 783)
List some potential consequences of electric shock
Cardiac arrest

Ventricular fibrillation

Involuntary muscle contractions

Paralysis

Burns (external AND internal)

Joint damage

Burns to eyes (UV/arc)

(pp. 784-785)
List some factors that affect the seriousness of electric shock.
Path of electricity through the body

Degree of skin resistance (dry? wet?)

Length of exposure

Amperage and voltage

AC vs. DC

(p. 785)
List the guidelines for working an electrical emergency
Establish an exclusion zone equal to one span in all directions from power lines

Be alert for additional wire and tower failures occuring

Wear full PPE, use gear with insulated handles

Wait for utility workers to cut power lines

Use lockout devices

Be very careful raising ladders near power lines

Do not touch any apparatus that's in contact with electrical wires

Jump clear of apparatus that may be energized by power lines (to avoid becoming the ground)

Do not use solid/straight streams

Heed any tingling sensation and back away

Maintain a large safety zone

(pp. 785-786)
What is the procedure for backing out of a ground gradient area?
Keep feet touching one another, and hop/shuffle out of the affected area)

(p. 786)
How do you treat a class D fire when you have no class D extinguishing agents available?
Just protect exposures. DO NOT DIRECT WATER AT THE METAL FUEL!

(p. 787)
What are the four big questions the officer in command must ask when sizing up a scene?
1) Are there occupants in need of immediate rescue?

2) Are only the contents involved, or is the structure burning?

3) Are there exposures threatened by fire?

4) Are there sufficient resources available?

(p. 788)
What are the main priorities of the first engine company?
Intervene between trapped occupants and the fire

Protect rescuers

Protect primary means of egress

Protect interior exposures (other rooms)

Protect exterior exposures (other buildings)

Initiate extinguishment from unburned side

Operate master streams

(p. 789)
What is the main goal of the second-due engine company?
Ensure sufficient water supply

(p. 789)
What are the main priorities of the second-due engine company?
Back up initial attack line

Protect secondary means of egress

Prevent fire extension

Protect the most threatened exposure

Assist in extinguishment

Assist with fireground support company operations

(p. 789)
What are the main priorities of the fireground support company?
Forcible entry

Search and rescue

Property conservation

Ladder placement

Ventilation

Scene lighting

Utilities

Checking for fire extension

Operating elevated streams

overhaul

(p. 790)
What is a "blitz attack?"
Aggressively attacking a fire from the exterior with a large diameter (2.5" or longer) stream

(p. 790)
Besides gas and electric, what other utility can be shut off in some situations to limit property damage?
Water

(p. 791)
What's a RIC or RIT team?
Rapid Intervention Crew or Rapid Intervention Team -- two or more fully equipped and available firefighters designated to stand by outside the hazard zone to enter and rescue firefighters inside, if necessary.

(p. 792)
In multistory buildings, the attack is often launched from the floor ____ the fire.
Below

(p. 793)
When attacking fire from a high-rise stairwell, where should extra hose be flaked?
On the stairs leading to the level above the fire level, so charged line can easily be pulled down and advanced.

(p. 793)
During a high-rise fire, what floors besides the fire floor should be addressed?
Firefighters should be checking the floors above the main fire floor for extension and victims.

(p. 793)
During a high-rise fire, where should equipment and personnel be staged?
Two floors beneath the fire floor.

(p. 793)
How should basement fires be addressed if a cellar nozzle is available?
1) Locate fire

2) Punch hole in floor above fire, insert cellar nozzle

3) Water the fire for a few minutes

4) Ventilate basement and assess situation

(p. 794)
How should basement fires be addressed if a cellar nozzle is not available?
1) Ventilate on opposite side of stairway

2) Descend stairway behind protection of a wide-angle fog

3) slowly advance with wide fog stream, pushing heat and smoke out of ventilation opening

4) attack attack attack
What happens when steel girders are heated above 1000 degrees F?
They elongate, which can push down walls and cause structural failure/collapse

(p. 795)
What are some common types of fixed fire suppression systems?
Sprinkler systems

CO2 systems

Standpipe systems

Clean agent systems

Dry chemical hood systems

Wet chemical systems

Foam systems

(p. 795)
What are some potential dangers involved with fixed fire suppression systems?)
Poor visibility

Oxygen depletion

Energized electrical equipment

Toxic environments

(p. 795)
What are some possible actions taken in order to control a sprinkler system?
Assign a radio-equipped firefighter to the sprinkler valve to control it.

Install wedges or stops on sprinkler heads

Replace open sprinklers to allow the system to be restored to normal

Restore sprinkler system to normal

(pp. 795-796)
What are the basic procedures for attacking a vehicle fire?
Position a hoseline between the vehicle and exposures

Attack from a 45 degree angle

Extinguish fire near occupants first

Issue an "all clear" when occupants are out of the vehicle

Extinguish any fire around or under vehicle

Apply water to cool combustible compenents

(p. 797)
Where might you find pneumatic components that can explode and/or cause dangerous projectile situations in a vehicle fire?
Bumpers (bumper struts)

Trunk/hood (pneumatic lifts)

Airbags
How do you attack an engine fire without opening the hood?
Use a piercing nozzle on hood, fender, or wheel wells, or create an opening using a halligan bar or other tool between the hood and fender, and insert fire stream nozzle.

(p. 798)
In hybrid vehicles, what do orange-colored cables and components indicate?
High voltage

(p. 799)
How can a locked trunk be opened?
Insert tip of halligan bar into lock, drive cylinder out, insert screwdriver or other tool to disengage lock.

(p. 798)
What are three methods of attacking an undercarriage fire?
Open the hood and direct stream through engine compartment

Direct the stream downward and allow water to deflect up into the undercarriage

If unapproachable, fire a straight stream from a distance to reach under vehicle.

(p. 798)
List some vehicle-specific hazards
Catalytic converters as ignition sources (they operate at 1300-2500 degrees F)

Air bags

Burning plastic

High voltage hybrid components

Saddle fuel tanks

Auxiliary tanks, LPG or CNG tanks

Hazardous materials

Explosives

(p. 799)
What are some dangerous conditions tied to confined space fires?
Oxygen deficiencies

Flammable gases and vapors

Toxic gases

Extreme temperatures

Explosive dusts

Limited means of entry and egress

Cave-ins

Standing water

Utility hazards

(p. 800)
What are the three main influences on wildland fires?
Fuel

Weather

Topography

(p. 800)
Define and describe the three main classifications of wildland fire fuels
Subsurface fuels -- roots, peat, decomposed underground matter

Surface fuels -- Needles, twigs, grass, brush, crops, limbs, logging slash, small trees

Aerial fuels -- suspended and upright fuels (brush over 6 ft, leaves and needles on limbs, branches, hanging moss, etc.), physically separated from surface to the extent that air can circulate freely between them and the ground.

(pp. 801-802)
What fuel factors affect the burning characteristics of fuels in a wildland fire?
Size

Continuity

Volume

Moisture content

(p. 802)
What weather aspects influence wildland fires?
Wind

Temperature

Humidity

Precipitation

(pp. 802-803)
What are some topography-based factors that affect a wildland fire?
Aspect (direction of slopes related to sun exposure)

Local terrain features

Drainages

(p.803)
What are the parts of a wildland fire?
Origin

Head

Finger

Perimeter

Heel

Flanks

Islands

Spot fire

Green

Black

(pp. 803-804)
What pieces of PPE make up a wildland firefighting loadout?
Helmet with eye protection and neck shroud

Flame retardant shirt and pants

Protective footwear without steel toes

Gloves

Fire shelter in crush-resistive case

Optional: canteen, backpack, fusees, food, clean socks, belt bag, etc.

(p. 804)
Describe the two methods of attacking a wildland fire.
Direct: attacking the flames

Indirect: Used when fire is too fast, too hot, or too big for direct attack. Controlled burns are used to create a perimeter around the fire. Controlled burns require an ANCHOR, such as a road.

(pp. 805-806)
What are the "Ten Fire Orders" that must always be observed when fighting a wildland fire?
Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts.

Know what the fire is doing at all times

Base all actions on current and expected fire behavior

Identify escape routes and safety zones, and make them known

Post lookouts when there is possible danger

Be alert, keep calm, think clearly, act decisively.

Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor, and adjoining forces

Give clear instructions and ensure that they are understood

Maintain control of your forces at all times

Fight fire aggressively, providing for safety first

(p. 806)