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74 Cards in this Set

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____ is rhythmic smooth muscle contractions of the intestinal wall that moves things forward.
Peristalsis
The voluntary contraction of the muscles of the abdominal wall and closing of the glottis increase intraabdominal pressure by 4-5 times. This aids us in passing feces and is known as _____.
valsalva maneuver
The valsalva maneuver is contraindicated in people with ____.
cardiovascular disease/disorders
The expulsion of feces from the anus and rectum is called _____.
defacation
The ___ takes food from the larynx to the stomach.
esophagus
Food is chemically digested and most is absorbed as it moves thru the _____.
small intestine
The small intestine consists of 3 sections:
duodenum
jejunum
ilium
The major function of the colon/large intestine is to
eliminate undigestible food residue from the body.
The 4 parts of the large intestine are:
cecum
ascending colon
transverse colon
descending colon
The large intestine absorbs ____, _____, and _____.
water
salts
vitamins
The ____ is where feces is retained.
rectum
The _____ is the end of the digestive tract. It includes the internal involuntary sphincter and external voluntary sphincter.
anus
An infamt's first stool is _____. It is black and tar-like from ingested amniotic fluids, epithelial cells and bile.
merconium
The ____ sphincter is only open during the defecation process.
external voluntary
_____ is bright red blood in the stool.
Hematochezia
_____ is fatty, frothy, foul smelling stool that can be caused by a decrease in pancreatic enzyme secretion.
Steatorrhea
The normal feces color in adults is ____.
brown
The normal feces color in infants is _____.
yellow
Feces that is clay or white is abnormal and may be from...
absence of bile pigments or a diagnostic study using barium.
Feces that is black or tarry is abnormal and may be from...
taking a drug such as iron, bleeding from upper GI tract, diet high in red meat and dark green vegetables.
Feces that are red are abnormal and could be due to...
bleeding from lower GI tract, some foods.
Feces that are pale in color are abnormal and could be due to...
malabsorption of fats, diets high in milk and milk products and low in meats.
Feces that are orange or green are abnormal and could be due to...
intestinal infection
The normal consistency of feces is
formed, soft, semisolid, moist
Abnormal consistency for feces is _____. This could indicate dehydration, decreased intestinal motility resulting from lack of fiber in diet, lack of exercise, emotional upset, or laxative abuse. Also ____ is abnormal and could be due to increased intestinal motility.
hard, dry

diarrhea
The normal shape of feces is...
cylindrical and about 1 inch in diameter for adults
Abnormal shape for feces is...
narrow, pencil shaped, or string-like
The normal amount of feces per day is about
100-400g (varies with diet)
The normal aroma of feces is _____ not pungent.
aromatic
Pungent smelling feces could be caused by...
infection or blood
Normal constituents of feces are
small amounts of undigested roughage, sloughed dead bacteria and epithelial cells, fat, protein, and dried constituents of digestive juices
Abnormal constituents of feces include:
pus, mucus, parasites, blood, large quantities of fat, and foreign objects.
Pus in feces may be d/t...
bacterial infection
Mucus in feces may be d/t...
inflammatory condition
Blood in feces may be d/t...
GI bleeding
Large quantities of fat in feces may be d/t...
malabsorption
Foreign objects in feces may be d/t...
accidental ingestion
_____ is black, tarry stool that usually occurs with upper GI bleed.
Melena
A barium enema may cause ____ stool.
white, chalky
Anxious/angry people may have an ___ in peristalsis which can lead to diarrhea or nausea.
increase
Depression may lead to _____ intestinal activity resulting in constipation.
decreased
_____ medications increase GI motility and promote defecation.
Cathardic
_____ and ____ can cause decreased or ceased intestinal movements.
Anesthesia and Surgery
When should you listen to bowel sounds in regards to surgery?
before and after
Pain is a factor affecting bowel elimination and could be r/t...
-hemorrhoids
-surgery
-constipation
Fecal elimination problems include:
-constipation
-fecal impaction
-diarrhea
-bowel incontinence
-flatulence
____ is the decreased frequency of defecation. It results in hard, dry, formed stools that are painful.
Constipation
Causes of constipation include:
-insufficient fiber and fluid intake
-insufficient activity
-irregular habits
_____ is a mass or collection of hardened feces in the folds of the rectum. It may happen with people who are constipated or on bed rest or may be ignoring the urge to go.
Fecal impaction
When there is fecal impaction you will see passage of ____ and no _____.
liquid fecal seepage

no normal stool
Causes of fecal impaction include:
poor defecation habits and constipation
_____ is the passage of liquid feces and increased frequency of defecation.
Diarrhea
Major causes of diarrhea include:
stress, medications, allergies, intolerance of food or fluids, disease of colon
S/Sx of diarrhea include:
-spasmodic cramps
-increased (hyperactive) bowel sounds
-fatigue
-weakness
-malaise
-emaciation
______ is the loss of voluntary ability to control fecal and gaseous discharges.
Bowel Incontinence
The prevalence of bowel incontinence increases with ___.
age
Bowel incontinence is generally associated with...
impaired functioning of the anal sphincter of nerve supply
Training can help with bowel continence. Some examples are:
establishing daily routine, use measures to promote defecation, avoid meds that cause increase in defecation, teach clients about proper positioning, exercise, and fluid/fiber intake.
____ is the presence of excessive gas/flatus in the intestines. It leads to stretching and inflation of intestines (intestinal distention).
Flatulence
Flatulence may be caused by...
certain foods, carbonated beverages, chewing gum, drinking straws, not moving around enough
When obtaining the nursing history of bowel elimination it is important to note:
-client's normal pattern
-description of usual feces
-recent changes
-past problems with elimination
-presence of an ostomy
-diet-fiber/fluid intake
Warning signs of colon cancer include:
-change in bowel pattern
-blood in stool
-change in character of stool
-sensation of incomplete emptying after bowel movement
-rectal/abdominal pain
During physical examination of the bowel elimination system the nurse should...
-examine the abdomen, rectum, and anus
-auscultate then palpate
-inspect feces for color, consistency, shape, amount, odor, and abnormal constituents
-review data from relevant diagnostic tests
Interventions to manage constipation are:
-administer meds (laxatives and cathartics)
-administer enemas (last resort)
-remove impaction
-encourage fiber intake (25-30g/day)
-encourage fluid intake or 2-3L/day
-encourage physical activity
Docusate is a _____.
stool softener
____ are used with caution. A physician must recommend after other things have been tried or the patient is very uncomfortable.
Laxatives
______ are a strong stimulant of peristalsis that lead to defecation.
Cathartics
_____ is a main concern with older adults who become fixated on bowel routine.
Perceived constipation
Three different nursing diagnoses for constipation are:
Constipation
Perceived Constipation
Risk for Constipation
____ and ____ can be a medical or a nursing diagnosis.
Constipation and Diarrhea
Hypoactive bowel sounds often accompany _____.
constipation
Hyperactive bowel sounds often accompany _____.
diarrhea
Interventions to alleviate/manage diarrhea are:
-identify cause
-observe and record number and consistency per day
-practice food safety
-avoid/limit certain foods/fluids (high fiber/fat, spicy, alcohol, caffeine)
-restore fluids and electrolytes
-anti-diarrheal medications
General interventions for Diarrhea are:
-promoting regular defections
-teaching about medications
-decreasing flatulence
-administering enemas
-digital removal of a fecal impaction
-instituting bowel training programs
-applying a fecal incontinence pouch
-ostomy management