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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
- the initial reactions in photosynthesis, which are triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems I and II and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosmosis
light reactions
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis
a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
in plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast
a substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color
a green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbohydrates
a class of pigments that are present mostly in plants and that aid in photosynthesis
in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis
in chloroplasts, an acceptor of electrons lost from chlorophyll a; found in the thylakoid membrane
primary electron acceptor-
a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
electron transport chain
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP
Calvin cycle
the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide, such as in photosynthesis
carbon fixation-
one of many openings in a leaf or a stem of a plant that enable gas exchange to occur
a carbon-fixing process in which carbon dioxide is bound to a compound to form a four-carbon intermediate
C4 pathway
crassulacean acid metabolism, a biochemical pathway in certain plants in which carbon dioxide is incorporated into organic acids at night and released for fixation in the Calvin cycle during the day
CAM pathway-
the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
cellular respiration
the three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis
pyruvic acid
an electron carrier molecule
describes a process that does not require oxygen
the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen
aerobic respiration
the anaerobic breakdown of glucose pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by being oxidized to NAD+ and reduced to NADH
the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product
lactic acid fermentation
the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol
alcoholic fermentation
a unit of energy equal to 1,000 cal
the fluid that is inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
mitochondrial matrix
acetyl coenzyme A, a compound that is synthesized by cells and that plays a major role in metabolism
acetyl CoA
a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy
Krebs cycle
a four-carbon compound of Krebs cycle that combines with acetyl CoA to form citric acid
oxaloacetic acid
a six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle
citric acid
flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions