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207 Cards in this Set

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The chemical components of bone include:
1. Osteoblasts
2. Osteocytes
3. Osteoclasts
4. Osteoid (the ground substance and collagen fibers)
What do the chemical components of bone do?
they contributes to the flexibility and the tensil strength of bone
the inorganic components of bone:
1. account for 65% of bone mass
2. consists of hydroxyapatite (accounts for the hardness and the compression resistance of bone)
cranial bones and clavicles are formed:
when fibrous connective tissue membranes form by ossification
endochondral ossification
when bone tissue replaces hyaline cartilage
* forms all bones below the skull except the clavicles
1st stage of stage endochondral ossification
a bone collar is formed around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model when the osteoblasts secrete osteoid
2nd stage of stage endochondral ossification
cavities are formed when the center cartilage of the diaphysis calcifies and deteriorates
3rd stage of stage endochondral ossification
spongy bone forms around the remaining fragments of hyaline cartilage when the periosteal bud invades the cavities
4th stage of stage endochondral ossification
1.the diaphysis lengthens as the cartilage in the epiphysis lengthens
2. the medullary cavity forms from the action of the osteoclasts in the center of the diaphysis
5th stage of endochondral ossification
The epiphyses ossify shortly after birth through the development of the secondary ossification centers
long bone growth in length
occurs at the osteogenic zone through rapid division of the upper cell in the columns of the chondrocytes, calcification and deterioration of the cartilage at the bottom of the columns and subsequent replacement of bone tissue
growth in width or thickness
appositional growth (outside growth)due to the deposition of the bone matrix by osteoblasts beneath the periosteum
epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood is stimulated by the:
growth hormone
Testosterone and estrogen do what at puberty:
1. promote a growth spurt
2. cause the closure of the epiphyseal plate
In adult skeletons
1. bone remodeling: bone removal and addition are equal
2. when a bone is injured: bone deposition occurs at a greatger rate
3. bone resorption: allows minerals of degraded bone matrix to into the blood
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
raises bone calcium levels
Calcitone
1. active in kids
2. lowers bone calcium
The four major stages of repairing fractures:
1. hematoma formation
2. fibrocartilage callus formation
3. bony callus formation
4. remodeling of the bony callus
Osteomalacia
1. the bone is inadequately mineralized
2. in adults
Rickets
1. the bone is inadequately mineralized
2. in children
3. caused by insufficient calcium or a vitamin D dificiency
Osteoporosis
1. bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation
2. bone mass is reduced, become more light and porous, and it increases the likelihood for fractures
the factors that cause osteoporosis:
1. a decline in estrogen after menopause
2. a petite body form
3. insufficient exercise or immobility
4. a diet poor in calcium and/or vitamin D
5. abnormal vitamin D receptors
6. smoking
7. certain hormone-related conditions
Paget's disease
1. excessive bone deposition and resorption that causes an abnormal high amount of spongy bone
2. a localized condition that deforms the bone
3. don't usually show symptoms
The skull contains:
1. 22 cranial and facial bones
2. cavities for sense organs
3. openings for food and air passage
4. secure the teeth
5. anchor muscles and facial expressions
skull bones,except for the mandible, are connected by:
interlocking joints called sutures
* the mandible is connected by a movable joint
the anterior skull is formed by:
1. the facial bones
The rest of the skull is formed by:
* cranium which has three sections
1. the cranial vault
2. the calvaria
3. cranial base
The cavities of the skull include:
1. cranial cavity (houses the brain)
2. ear cavities
3. nasal cavity
4. orbits (house the eyeballs)
The frontal bone connects posteriorly to:
the parietal bones via the coronal suture
the skull has passageways for
1. the spinal cord
2. major blood vessels
3. cranial nerves
The parietal bones
1. two large, rectangular bones that form most of the cranial vault
2. the fouur major sutures connect the Parietal bones to other bones
The occipital bone
1. connects with parietal, sephenoid, and temporal bones
2. forms most of the posterior wall and the base of the skull
3. The foramen magnum (a large opening in the base of the skull that connects the brain to the spinal cord) is located here
The temporal bones
1. connect with the parietal bone by the squamous suture
2. forms part of the cranial floor
3. has the mandibular fossa, temporomandibukar joint, the external auditory meatus and petrous (houses the ear)
The sphenoid bone:
1.spans the width of the middle cranial fossa
2. connects with all other cranial bones
The ethmoid bone:
1. lies between the sephenoid and the nasal bones
2. forms most of the bony area between the nasal bone and the orbits
Sutural bones:
groups of irregularly shaped bones or bone clusters that are located within sutures
2. not present on all skulls
The mandible
connects to the mandibular fossae of the temporal bones via the mandibular condyles (forms the temporomandibular joint)
Maxillary bones
connects will all facial bones except the mandible
The zygomatic bone
1.connects with the temporal, frontal, and maxillary bones
2. forms the cheecks and parts of the inferolateral margins of the orbits
the lacrimal bones
1. located in the medial walls of the orbits
2. connect with the frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
The Palatine bone
1. consists of bony plates
2. form the posterior portion of the hard palate
3. form part of the posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity
4. forms part of the orbits
The vomer
forms part of the nasal septum
The orbits are bony cavities that contain:
1. the eyes
2. muscles that move the eyes
3. tear-producing glands
4. bones: the frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid bones
The nasal cavity
1.made of bone and hyaline cartilage
2. divided into left and right parts by the nasal septum
3. formed by the ethmoid, maxillary, palatine bones and the inferior nasal conchae
Paranasal sinuses
air-filled sinuses clustered around the nasal cavity that lighten the skull and enhance the resonance of the voice
The hyoid bone
1. lies inferior to the mandible
2. the only bone that doesn't connect directly with any other bone
The vertebral column conisits of:
1. 26 irregular bones
The vertebral column is:
1. a flexible, curved structure extending from the skull to the pelvis that surrounds the spinal cord
2. provides attachment for the ribs and the muscles of the neck and back
Paranasal sinuses
air-filled sinuses clustered around the nasal cavity that lighten the skull and enhance the resonance of the voice
The hyoid bone
1. lies inferior to the mandible
2. the only bone that doesn't connect directly with any other bone
The vertebral column conisits of:
1. 26 irregular bones
The vertebral column is:
1. a flexible, curved structure extending from the skull to the pelvis that surrounds the spinal cord
2. provides attachment for the ribs and the muscles of the neck and back
The five major divisions of the spine:
1. 7 cervical
2. 12 thoracic
3. 5 lumbar
4. 5 fused vertebrae of the sacrum
4. 4 fused vertebrae of the coccyx
The curvatures of the spine do what?
Increase resiliency and flexibility of the spine
Explain the cervical and lumbar curvatures
they are posteriorly concave
Explain the thoracic and the sacral curvatures
they are posteriorly convex
The major supporting ligaments of the spine:
the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament
- they are continuous bands that run down the front and the back surfaces of the spine
- prevent hyperflexion and hyperextention
Intervertebral discs
1.cushion-like pads that act as shock absorbers
2. allow the spine to flex, extend, and bend laterally
each vertabra consists of:
1. an anterior body
2. a posterior vertebral arch
3. a body
- these form the vertebral foramen (where the spinal cord passes through)
The vertebral arch consists of:
1. 2 pedicals
2. 2 laminae
3. the median spinous process
4. 2 lateral transverse processes
5. a paired superior and inferior articular processes
The pedicles
have notches on their superior and inferior borders (intervertebral foramen) that provided openings for spinal nerves
Intervertebral discs
1.cushion-like pads that act as shock absorbers
2. allow the spine to flex, extend, and bend laterally
each vertabra consists of:
1. an anterior body
2. a posterior vertebral arch
3. a body
- these form the vertebral foramen (where the spinal cord passes through)
The vertebral arch consists of:
1. 2 pedicals
2. 2 laminae
3. the median spinous process
4. 2 lateral transverse processes
5. a paired superior and inferior articular processes
The pedicles
have notches on their superior and inferior borders (intervertebral foramen) that provided openings for spinal nerves
Cervical vertebrae
1. the smallest and the lightes vertebrae
2. have an oval body
3. they are wider from side to side than from front to back
4. the spinous process is split at the end (bifid)
5. the vertebral foramen is large and trianular
6. transverse forament
7. consists of C1-C7
Cervical bone C1
the Atlas
- has no body or spinous process
- has articular facets on the superior and the inferior surfaces that connect with the skull superiorly
Cervical bone C2
the Axis
- has articular facets on the superior and the inferior surfaces that connect with the skull inferiorly
- has a body, spine, and other typical vertebrae processes
- also has knoblike dens projecting superiorly from the body
Thoracic vertebrae
1. connect with the ribs
2. between the cervical structure and the and the lumbar structure
3. have a heart-shaped body with two facets on each side (where the ribs attach)
4. has a circular vertebral foramen
5. has superior and inferior articular processes
Lumbar Vertebrae
1. large kidney-shaped bodies
2.a triangular vertebral foramen
3. short and thick pedicles
4. short and thick laminae
5. short, flat, hatchet-shaped spinous processes
The sacrum
1. forms the posterior wall of the pelvis
2. formed by 5 fused verrtebrae
3. connects with the 5th lumbar vertebra superiorly and the coccyx inferiorly and the hip bones laterally (at the sacroiliac joint)
4. the vertebral canal goes through the sacrum and ends at the sacral hiatus
the coccyx
1. a small bone consisting of 4 fused vertebrae
2. connects superiorly with the sacrum
The bony Thorax
1. consists of the thoracic vertebrae, the ribs, the sternum, and the costal cartilages
2. forms a protective cage around the organs of the thoracic cavity
3.supports the shoulder girdles and the upper limbs
The sternum
1. lies in the anterior middle of the thorax
2. a flat bone consisting of three fused bones (the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process)
The manubrium
1. connects with the clavicles and the first two pairs of ribs
The body of the sternum
1. connects with the cartilage of ribs 2-7
The xiphoid process of the sternum
1. forms the inferior end of the sternum
2. connect only with the body
The True ribs
1. also called the vertebrosternal ribs
2. attach directly to the sternum by individual costal cartilage
3. rib pairs 1-7
The False ribs
1. the lower 5 pairs of ribs
2. attach indirectly to the sternum or don't attach at all
The pectoral (shoulder) girdle consists of:
the clavicle (it joins to the sternum interiorly), the scapula (it joins to the posterior thorax), and the vertebrae (joins via muscular attachments)
The structure of the pectoral girdle:
very light, have a high degree of mobility due to the openness of the shoulder joint and the free movement of the scapula across the thorax
The clavicles (collarbones):
extend horizontally across the thorax, articulating medially with the sternum and laterally with the scapula, and braces the arms and the scapulae laterally
The scapulae (shoulder blades):
they are thin, flat bones that lie on the dorsal surface of the ribcage, articulating with the humerus via the glenoid cavity, and the clavicle via the acromion
The arm consists of:
one bone (the humerus) that extends from the shoulder to the elbow
The humerus is:
the largest and longest bone of the upper limb. It connects with the scapula at the shoulder and with the radius and the ulna at the elbow.
The forearm is:
the region between the elbow and the wrist. It consists of 2 bones (the ulna and the radius).
The ulna:
It forms the elbow joint with the humerus. It connect with the radius laterally at the proximal end and connects with the bones of the wrist via the cartilage discs at the distal end
The radius is:
It connects with the humerus and the ulna medially at the proximal end via a flattened head. It connects with the carpals of the wrist and the ulna medially at the distal end
The carpals consist of:
8 short bones arranged in 2 irregular rows of 4 bones each
The metacarpus (palms) consist of:
5 small, long bones numbering 1-5 from the thumb to the little finger. They connect with the carpals proximally and the proximal phalanges distally.
The phalanges:
there are 14 phalanges of the fingers. There are 2 phalanges in the thumb (the pollex). There are other fingers (numbered digits 2-5) have three phalanges each.
The pelvic girdle is formed by:
a pair of coxal bones (each coxal bone consisting of three separate bones: the ischium, the ilium and the pubis). These bones are fused in adults.
The ilium:
It forms the superior region of the coxal bone. It connects with the sacrum bone, forming the sacroiliac joint. It also connects with the ischium and the and the pubis interiorly.
The ischium:
it forms the poster inferior portion of the coxa
The pubic bones:
they form the anterior portion of the coxa. They are joined by a fibrocartilage disc, forming the pubic symphysis
The female pelvis:
It tends to be wider, shallower, lighter and rounder than the male pelvis.
The pelvis consists of:
the false pelvis ( is part of the abdomen and helps support the viscera) and the true pelvis (it is completely surrounded by bone and contains the pelvic organs)
The thigh:
it is the region between the hip and the knee and consists of one bone: the femur
The femur:
it is the largest, longest, and strongest bone in the body. It connects proximally with the hip and distally with the knee at the lateral and medial condyles.
The patella:
it is a triangular sesamoid bone that connects with the femur at the patellar surface.
The leg:
the region between the knee and the ankle. It has 2 bones (the tibia and the fibula)
The tibia:
the weight-bearing bone of the leg. It articulates proximally with the femur by the medial and lateral condyles. It connects to the Talus by the medial malleolus on the distal side.
The fibula:
It is a stick-like, non-weight-bearing bone. It has expanded ends that connect to the tibia proximally via the head and distally via the lateral malleolus.
The tarsus consists of:
7 tarsal bones that make up the posterior part of the foot
The metatarsals consist of:
5 small, long bones called the metatarsal bones that number #1-5 starting with the medial side of the foot.
The phalanges of the toe:
there are 14. The big toe (hallux) is digit 1 and has 2 phalanges. The other toes #ed 2-5 have phalanges.
The arches of the foot:
they are formed by interlocking bones, ligaments, and the pull of the tendons during muscle activity.
When do the membrane bones of the skull ossify?
They ossify late in the second month of development
How are the skull bones connected at birth?
They are connected by fontanels (non ossified remnants of fibrous membranes)
Cranium proportion differences at birth:
the cranium is is much larger than the face and some bones are still not fused
The cranium at nine months:
the cranium is half the adult size due to rapid growth
The cranium between ages nine and ten:
the cranium is almost to adult proportions
What happens to the face between 6 to 13 years of age?
The jaw, cheekbones, and nose become more prominent due to the expansion of the nose, the paranasal sinuses and the development of the permanent teeth
Thoracic and sacral curvatures:
the primary curvatures of the body. They are convex posterior and are present at birth.
Cervical and lumbar curvatures:
They are convex anterior and are associated with a child’s development.
The effects of old age on the skeleton:
The intervertebral discs become thinner, less hydrated, and less elastic. The thorax becomes more rigid due to the calcification of the costal cartilages. All the bones loose bone mass.
The site where two or more bones meet/connect are called what?
joints or articulations
What do joints do?
They give our skeleton mobility and hold our skeleton together
What are fibrous joints?
They are joints where the bones are joined by fibrous tissue. They also lack a joint cavity.
What are cartilaginous joints?
They are joints where the bones are joined together by cartilage. They also lack a joint cavity.
What are synovial joints?
They are joints where the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity.
A joint’s function is classified by what?
It is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint.
A joint’s structure is classified by what?
It is classified by the material binding the bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present.
What is a Synarthroses joint?
It is an immovable joint.
What is a Amphiarthroses joint?
It is a joint that moves slightly.
What is a Diarthroses joint?
These joints move freely.
Where do the sutures of Fibrous joints occur?
They occur between the bones of the skull.
How do the sutures of Fibrous joints hold bones together?
They hold bones together by very short connective tissue fibers.
How are the bones in syndesmoses held together?
They are connected by a ligament (a band of fibrous tissue)
The articulating surfaces of symphyses (such as the pubic symphyses) are covered by what?
They are covered with articular cartilage that is fused to an intervening pad or plate of fibro cartilage.
What is a tendon sheet or bersa?
They run across joint capsules and contain synovial fluid. They lubricate and reduce friction outside of a joint.
What is the general structure of a synovial joint?
It contains five distinguishing features: articular cartilage, the joint or synovial cavity, the articular capsule, the synovial fluid, and the reinforcing ligaments.
What does the articular cartilage do?
It covers the ends of the articulating bones.
What it the synovial cavity?
It is the space that is filled with synovial fluid.
* What does the articular capsule do?
It is double-layered and it encloses the joint.
What is the synovial fluid?
It is a viscous, slippery fluid that fills all free spaces within the joint cavity. It provides weight bearing support and lubrication.
What do the shapes (whether it is convex, concave or flat) of the articular surfaces (found at a synovial joint) of a bone determine?
They determine the movement that occurs at a joint and have a minimal role in stabilizing the joint.
What do ligaments do at the synovial joint?
They prevent excessive or unwanted movements and help stabilize the joint. The more ligaments, the greater the stability. They have a certain amount of stability and are able to recoil after being over flexed.
What do reinforcing ligaments do?
They strengthen the joint by crossing synovial joints.
What does muscle tone do?
It helps keep the tendons crossing the joint taut. It is the most important factor in stabilizing the joint.
What is a gliding movement?
When one flat or nearly flat bone glides or slips over another. Fassets and vertebrae are examples.
What are angular movements?
They increase or decrease the angle between two bones.
What is Flexion?
It is an angular movement that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together.
What is a hip and shoulder flexion?
When you move the hip or shoulder forward.
What is a head flexion?
What is a head flexion?
What is and extension?
An angular movement that increases the angle between articulating bones.
What is trunk extension?
When you bend the trunk backwards.
What is a trunk flexion?
When you bend the trunk forward.
What is dorsiflexion?
It is an angular movement that decreases the angle between the top of the foot (the dorsal surface) and the anterior surface of the tibia - brings the top of the foot up toward the front of the leg.
What is plantar flexion?
When you push the sole of the foot down.
What is abduction?
It is the movement of a limb (or fingers) away from the midline of the body (or away from the hand).
What is adduction?
It is the movement of a limb (or fingers) toward the midline of the body (or toward the hand).
What is circumduction?
It is when you move your limb in a circular motion in the air.
What is rotation?
It is the turning of a bone along it own axis. Turning your head is an example of rotation.
What is supination?
When you rotate your forearm away from the body so that the palms of the hand face forward.
What is pronation?
When you rotate the forearm into the body so that the palms of the hand face backward.
What is inversion?
When you turn the foot so that the sole faces inward.
What is eversion?
When you turn the foot so that the sole faces outward.
What is Protraction?
When you move the mandible or shoulders forward.
What is retraction?
When you move the mandible or shoulders back to their original position.
What is elevation?
When you move a body part up.
What is depression?
When you move a body part down.
What is opposition?
When you touch your thumb to the other fingers on the same hand. Making an O.K. sign is an example.
What are plane joints?
They are joints like carpals, vertebrae, and tarsal that have flat articular surfaces and allow for gliding and transition movements.
What are hinge joints?
They are joints that consist of cylindrical projections that nest in structures such as the trochlear notch of the elbow and the knee joint that allows movement along a single plane.
What are ball-and-socket joints?
They are joints that consist of a spherical or hemispherical structure that articulates with a cube-like structure. These are the most moveable joints that allow a fairly wide range of movements. Hip and shoulder joints are examples.
What are the three ligaments involved with synovial joints.
Capuler ligaments, intracapsuler ligaments, and extracapsuler ligaments.
What is a capuler ligament?
When the capsule thickens and becomes more ligament like.
What is a intracapsuler ligament?
A ligament deep inside the capsule. ACL and PCL are examples.
What is a extracapsuler ligament?
A ligament that is located outside the capsule. Callaterals are examples.
What is weeping lubrication?
It is when the synovial fluid enters the hyaline cartilage and seeps back out. This is due to the compression on the joint.
What are proprioceptive receptors?
These are the receptors in the capsule of ligaments that monitor the joints stretching.
Do the ligaments and the articular capsule have a lot of nerve endings and receptors?
Yes
Ligaments:
They heal slowly, have very little elasticity and are not very vascular. Ligament injuries weaken the joint long term.
What is a hinge joint that is also the most complex joint in the body?
The knee joint.
The knee joint:
It is actually three joints in one that are known as the tibiofemoral joint: the femoropatellar joint, the lateral and medial joints between the femoral condyles, and the menisci of the tibia. They are enclosed in one cavity.
What stabilizes the knee joint?
many diff. types of ligaments stabilize an strengthen the capsule of the knee.
What reinforces the knee capsule?
muscle tendons such as the tendons of the quadriceps and those of the hamstrings extend over the knee joint to reinforce it.
Describe the structure of the shoulder (Glenohumeral) joint.
It is a shallow ball and socket joint that it very unstable.
What joint moves the most freely?
The shoulder (Glenohumeral) joint
What ligaments help reinforce the Glen humeral (shoulder) joint?
The Coracohumeral ligament and the three Glenohumeral ligaments. These ligaments are weak and ineffective.
What tendons cross the shoulder joint?
The tendons from the long head of the biceps and brachii and the four tendons of the muscles that make-up the rotator cuff (the supraspinotus (the muscle that sits on the supraspinous fossa of the rotator cuff), the infraspinatus, subscapularis, and the teres minor).
What is the coxal joint?
It is the hip joint, which is a ball-and-socket joint that provides a good range of motion.
What are the components of the coxal joint?
The acetabulum articulates with the head of the femur in the auricular surface.
What reinforces the capsule of the hip coxal joint?
several ligaments
What do the muscle tendons of coxal joint do?
They contribute to the stability and the strength of the joint by crossing over it.
What is the main stabilizing factor of the coxal joint?
the deep socket of the acetabulum and the ligaments.
What type of joint is the elbow joint?
It is a hinge joint that allows flexion and extension only.
Is the elbow a stable and smooth operating joint?
yes
What ligaments stabilize the elbow joint?
The annular ligament, the ulnar collateral ligament, and the radial collateral ligament.
What tendons provide additional stability by crossing the elbow joint?
The tendons of several arm muscles (the biceps and the triceps).
Does the ulnar nerve run deep in the tissue or does it run on the inside but near the top of the skin?
it runs on the inside but near the top of the skin.
What are the most common joint injuries?
sprains and dislocations
What is a sprain?
It is an overstretched or torn ligament.
What is a strain?
It is an overstretched muscle tendon.
What are the two types of dislocations?
1. Luxation
2. Subluxation
What is a luxation?
It is a complete separation
What is a subluxation?
It is less than a complete separation.
What is bursitis?
It is an inflammation of the bursa that is usually caused by a blow or by friction.
What is tendonitis?
An inflammation of the tendon and the tendon sheath that is usually caused by overuse.
What is arthritis?
An inflammatory or degenerative disease that damages the joints. It causes the joint to swell and causes pain and stiffness.
What are the types of arthritis?
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Rheumatoid arthritis
3. Gouty Arthritis
What is osteoarthritis?
It is the most common chronic arthritis. It is the result of the breaking down of the articular cartilage, hyaline cartilage damage (the cartilage surface becomes rough), damage to the Fibrocartilage at the knee and the vertebrae, increased amounts of scar tissue (collagen fibers are increased) and the subsequent thickening of the bone tissue.
What happens to a joint with osteoarthritis?
It changes or restricts the joint’s movement because the joint surfaces can’t articulate correctly due to the accumulating scar tissue.
What is Rheumatoid arthritis?
It is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation.
What is Gouty Arthritis?
When uric acid levels are too high and the uric acid calcifies in the joints.
What can help people with Gouty Arthritis?
What can help people with Gouty Arthritis?