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40 Cards in this Set

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intramembranous bone formation
process by which bone tissue is created. cartilage is not present.
endochondral (intercartilaginous) bone formation
process by which bone tissue is created. cartilage is present. long bones form and grow by this process. fractures heal by this process.
primary center of ossification
first site where ossification occurs. middle of diaphysis.
periosteal collar
cuff of periosteal bone that forms around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model in developing long bones.
periosteal bud
vascular connective tissue from the periosteum growing through apertures in the periosteal bone collar into the cartilage matrix of the primary center of ossification.
hypertrophy
the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
calcification
process in which calcium salts build up in soft tissue, causing it to harden.
ossification
process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts. It is synonymous with bone tissue formation.
osteogenesis
production of bone.
mixed spicule
has a core of calcified cartilage that is covered by a layer of new bone.
diaphysis
main or mid section (shaft) of a long bone. It is made up of cortical bone and usually contains bone marrow and adipose tissue (fat).
metaphysis
wider portion of a long bone adjacent to the epiphyseal plate. It is this part of the bone that grows during childhood; as it grows, it ossifies near the diaphysis and the epiphyses.
epiphysis
rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s)
epiphyseal plate
a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone. The plate is found in children and adolescents;
growth plate
another name for epiphyseal plate
growth hormone
peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals.
somatoropin
growth hormone produced naturally in animals
pituitary dwarfism
Extreme shortness in humans with proportional body parts usually has a hormonal cause
gigantism
condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly above average. In humans, this condition is caused by over-production of growth hormone in childhood before the long bone epiphyses
acromegaly
syndrome that results when the anterior pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (GH) after epiphyseal plate closure at puberty.
thyroxine
form of thyroid hormones, is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.
osteoclast-stimulating hormone
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
calcitonin
linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells of thyroid. It acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca2+), opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH).
parafollicular cells
(also called C cells) are cells in the thyroid that produce and secrete calcitonin.
C cells
another name for parafollicular cells
parathyroid hormone
secreted by the chief cells of the parathyroid glands. acts to increase the concentration of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood
parathyroid gland
small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone. control the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones.
rickets
softening of bones in children due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, magnesium,[1] phosphorus or calcium,[2] potentially leading to fractures and deformity.
osteomalacia
softening of the bones caused by defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate amounts of available phosphorus and calcium, or because of overactive resorption of calcium from the bone as a result of hyperparathyroidism. called rickets in children
osteoporosis
disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture.
osteopetrosis
literally "stone bone", also known as marble bone disease and Albers-Schonberg disease is an extremely rare inherited disorder whereby the bones harden, becoming denser
scurvy
disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans.
vitamin D3
synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) rays from sunlight.maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to form and maintain strong bones.
1,25-dihydroxycholecaclciferol
hormonally active form of vitamin D with three hydroxyl groups. It increases the level of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood by (1) increasing the uptake of calcium from the gut into the blood, (2) decreasing the transfer of calcium from blood to the urine by the kidney, and (3) increasing the release of calcium into the blood from bone
diarthroses
Any of several types of bone articulation permitting free motion in a joint, as that of the shoulder or hip.
synarthroses
A form of articulation in which the bones are rigidly joined by fibrous tissue.
synostosis
means fusion of two bones, it can be normal in puberty, fusion of the epifyse, or abnormal (type of dysostosis).
synchondrosis
cartilaginous joint where the connecting medium is hyaline cartilage. e.g. where rib meets sternum.
syndesmosis
slightly movable articulation where the contiguous bony surfaces are united by an interosseous ligament
synovial fluids
viscous fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints