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33 Cards in this Set

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Bone marrow
flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. production site for new blood cells
hydroxyapatite
an inorganic calcium-containing constituent of bone matrix and teeth, imparting rigidity to these structures.
calcium phosphate
makes up mineral component of hydroxyapatite. name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-)
compact bone
hard, outer layer of bone. This tissue gives bones their smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult skeleton.
trabeulae
small, often microscopic, tissue element in the form of a small beam, strut or rod, generally having a mechanical function, and usually composed of dense collagenous tissue
spicules
aggregates of bony matrix formed when certain mesenchymal cells group together, usually near or around blood vessels, and differentiate into osteogenic cells which deposit bone matrix constitutively.
cancellous bone
synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. higher surface area than compact bone but is less dense, softer, weaker, and less stiff. It typically occurs at the ends of long bones. highly vascular and frequently contains red bone marrow
spongy bone
synonym for cancellous bone
trabeculated bone
having a small mineralized spicule that forms a network in spongy bone.
osteoprogenitor cell
A mesenchymal cell that differentiates into an osteoblast.
osteoblast
mononucleate cells that are responsible for bone formation
osteocyte
star-shaped cell, is the most numerous cell found in mature bone. Become osteoblasts when they are trapped in the matrix they secrete
osteoclast
type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing its mineralized matrix and breaking up the organic bone
osteoid
unmineralized, organic portion of the bone matrix that forms prior to the maturation of bone tissue.
osseous
bone tissue. major structural and supportive connective tissue of the body. forms the rigid part of the bone organs that make up the skeletal system.
periosteum
membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones.
endosteum
thin layer of connective tissue that lines the surface of the bony tissue that forms the medullary cavity of long bones
osteogenic layer
touches the bone surface, contains primarily bone-forming cells, called OSTEOBLASTS, which secrete the extracellular matrix of the bone. contains OSTEOGENIC CELLS
canaliculi
small channels found in ossified bone
Howship's lacuna
pits in bone surface, called resorption bays, where osteoclasts can be found.
lamellar bone
the normal type of adult bone, organized in layers (lamellae), which may be parallel (cancellous b.) or concentrically arranged (compact b.)
lamellae
layers of bone. numerous plate or disc-like structures at both a tissue and cellular level.
haversian system
osteon
osteon
synonymous with haversian system. fundamental functional unit of much compact bone. consists of concentric lamellae
haversian canal
series of tubes around narrow channels formed by lamellae. Osteons are arranged in parallel to the long axis of the bone. surround blood vessels and nerve cells throughout the bone and communicate with osteocytes in lacunae.
Volkmann's canal
perforating holes, are microscopic structures found in compact bone. They run within the osteons perpendicular to the Haversian canals, interconnecting the latter with each other and the periosteum.
Sharpey's fibers
bone/perforating fibers. matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong collagenous fibres connecting periosteum to bone. They are part of the outer fibrous layer of periosteum, entering into the outer circumferential and interstitial lamellae of bone tissue.
cementing substance
a deposit of amorphous mineralized matrix surrounding the osteons of compact bone.
outer circumferential lamellae
just under the periosteum - forming outer most regions of the diaphysis - contain Sharpey’s fibers anchoring the periosteum to the bone
inner circumferential lamellae
Found to completely encircle the marrow cavity. Trabeculae of spongy bone extend from the inner circumferential lamellae into the marrow cavity
interstitial lamellae
One of the lamellae of partially resorbed osteons occurring between newer, complete osteons
parathyroid hormone
secreted by the chief cells of the parathyroid glands. acts to increase the concentration of calcium (Ca2+)
calcitonin
hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells. acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca2+), opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone