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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the divisions of the airway?
bronchi--> bronchioles--> terminal bronchioles--> respiratory bronchioles
What type of airway epithelium is seen at the terminal bronchioles?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar--> ciliated simple cuboidal
What feature is the last to disappear as the epithelium changes along the respiratory tube?
cilia
These areas of the respiratory tube lack goblet cells, glands, and cartilage?
bronchioles....terminal bronchioles....and respiratory bronchioles
Epithelial cilia persist in the respiratory tube up to the end of the....
respiratory bronchioles
Failure of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds to fuse?
pancreas divisum
The dorsal pancreatic bud forms what pancreatic tissue?
body....tail...and most of the head
What does the ventral pancreatic bud form?
uncinate process....INFERIOR/POSTERIOR portion of the head....and the major pancreatic duct
How does Kallman's syndrome present?
hypogonadism and anosmia (lack of sense of smell)
An absence of GnRH secretory neurons in the hypothalamus
kallman's syndrome
Failure of GnRH secretory neurons to migrate from their origin in the olfactory placode to the hypothalamus?
kallman's syndrome
This hormone stimulates proliferation of the seminiferous tubules and causes spermatogenesis
FSH from the anterior pituitary
Seminiferous tubules produce this hormone which feeds back to inhibit FSH secretion
inhibin
Stimulates the interstial leydig cells to produce testosterone
LH from the anterior pituitary
Produces NADH and inhibits gluconeogenesis causing hypoglycemia
ethanol metabolism
Conversion of pyruvate to lactate and oxaloacetate to malate by high levels of NADH inhibits what process?
gluconeogenesis
Minors can consent to treatment for these conditions w/o parental consent or notification
(1)Pregnancy

(2) STDS

(3)Birth Control

(4)Drug or alcohol addiction
This enzyme is secreted macrophages and causes collagen degredation of plaques
metalloproteinases
Plaque stability depends on the mechanical strength of the....
fibrous cap
Macs can reduce plaque stability by degrading collagen with the release of these enzymes?
metalloproteinases
Absorbed as monosaccharides
carbohydrates
name two alpha glucosidase inhibitors that prevent dissacharide breakdown and delays carbohydrate absorption?
(1) acarbose

(2) miglitol
Dissaccharidases
are membrane bound enzymes
Cellular target of the alpha glucosidase inhibitor acarbose
dissacharidases( surface membrane bound enzymes)
Nerve associated with "crutch palsy" and "wrist drop"
radial nerve
Nerve injured in radical mastectomy and causes winging of the scapula?
long thoracic nerve
When blood is redistributed from ischemic areas to non-ischemic areas through dilated collateral microvessels?
coronary steal effect
Patient on antibiotics can develop what type of infection in the gut?
c. difficile colitis
What toxin of C. difficile damages the cytoskeleton integrity of intestinal mucosal cells?
toxin B (the cytotoxin)
Breath with a mild fruity odor
diabetic ketoacidosis
During diabetic ketoacidosis...what happens to pH, HCO3-, and H2PO4- in the urine?
(1) pH decreases

(2) HCO3- increases

(3) H2PO4- decreases
QRS represents
ventricular depolarization and phase O on the AP graph
These drugs prolong phase 3 repolarization and the QT interval on EKG?
class 3 antiarrythmic agents
ventricular myocyte depolarization (phase O) is modulated by what class of antiarrythmic drugs?
Class 1
Most common movement disorder and is associated with a family history
essential tremor
Drug of choice for essential tremor
non-specific beta antagonists
(propanolol)
Type of tremor seen in parkinson disease
resting tremor
maculopapular rash that includes palms and soles
syphillis
Patients serum aggregates when mixed with a solution of cardiolipin, cholesterol, and lecithin
positive RPR
Syphillis screening test
RPR (rapid plasma reagin test)
Cold agglutinins
mycoplasma infection
Confirmatory syphillis test
detection of spirochetal antibodies
Agent in syphillis
treponema pallidum
Persistant cough, night sweats, and weight loss
mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
Released from t helper cells which causes the maturation of Macs and leads to granuloma formation?
interferon gamma
vitamins missing in breast milk
vitamins D and K
Higher risk of Vit D deficiency b/c they must be exposed to sunlight for longer periods of time
dark-skinned infants
Causes hepatocytes to increase their LDL receptor density
statins