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### 54 Cards in this Set

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 Key Point Blunt trauma is the most common cause of death and disability. Key Point Blunt trauma can be deceptive because the true nature of the injury is often hidden and evidence of the serious injury is very subtle or even absent. Kinetics The branch of physics that deals with motion, taking into consideration mass and force. Inertia Tendency of an object to remain at rest or remain in motion unless acted upon by an external force. Motion The process of changing place; movement. Energy The capacity to do work in the strict physical sense. Kinetic Energy The energy an object has while it is in motion. It is related to the object's mass and velocity. Mass A measure of the matter that an object contains; the property of a physical body that gives the body inertia. Velocity The rate of motion in a particular direction in realtion to time. Kinetic Energy Formula Kinetic Energy = Mass x Velocity² ________________ 2 Acceleration The rate at which speed or velocity increases. Deceleration The rate at which speed or velocity decreases. Key Point Trauma can be catagorized as either blunt or penetrating. Force Equation Force = Mass x Acceleration (or deceleration) Exsanguination The draining of blood to the point at which life cannot be sustained. Events of Vehicle Collision Vehicle collision Body collision Organ collision Secondary collision Additional impacts Key Point Secondary collisions may cause a patient's injuries or increase their severity. Key Point Restraints have had a profound effect in reducing crash-related deaths. Key Point Seat belt use should be mandatory for all EMS personnel. Key Point While airbags can cause injury, they have, overall, greatly reduced injury and death in vehicular crashes. Key Point Properly used child safety seats provide the best protection for infants and small children riding in vehicles. Types of Vehicle Impact Frontal Lateral Rotational Rear-end Rollover Key Point Frontal impact is the most common type of vehicle crash. Mechanisms Associated with Frontal Impacts Down-and-under pathway Up-and-Over pathway Ejection Key Point The up-and-over pathway accounts for over half of the deaths in vehicular crashes. Axial Loading Application of the forces of trauma along the axis of the spine; this often results in compression fractures of the spine. Crumple Zone The region of a vehicle designed to absorb the energy of impact. Key Point Maintain a higher index of suspicion of serious injury when assessing lateral imoact crashes because the degree of injury may be greater than the damamge alone would indicate. Oblique Having a slanted position or direction. Key Point The visual examination of the crash scene can tell you a great deal about what happened to the patient(s)and what wjat injuries should be suspected. Key Point Alcohol intoxication is associated with most serious crashes. Key Point Head and body cavity trauma account for 85 percent of deaths in vehicular crashes. Key Point Serious trauma is likely with even low-speed motorcycle crashes because of the lack of protective vehicular structure. Key Point Helmets reduce the incidence and severity of head injuries in motorcycle crashes, but they have no effect on the incidence of spinal trauma. Key Point In pedestrian-vs-automobile crashes, adults tend to turn away from the oncoming vehicle before impact, while children turn toward it. Key Point Recreational vehicles usually lack the structure and the restraint systems that offer significant protection to Oxidizer An agent that enhances combustion of a fuel. Pressure Wave Area of over-pressure that radiates outward from an explosion. Mechanisms Associated with Blasts Pressure wave Blast wind Projectiles Personnel displacement Confined spaces and structural collapses Burns Overpressure A rapid increase then decrease in atmospheric pressure created by an explosion. Key Point Underwater detonation increases the lethal range of an explosion threefold. Blast Wind The air movement caused as the heated and pressurized products of an explosion move outward. Ordnance Military weapons and munitions. Flechettes Arrow-shaped projectiles found in some military ordnance. Key Points The most lethal explosions are those causing structural collapses followed by those in confined spaces. Incendiary An agent that combusts easily or creates combustion. Blast Injury Phases Primary - caused by heat of explosion and overpressure wave Secondary - caused by blast projectiles Tertiary - caused by personnel displacement and structural collapse. Key Point Pulmonary injuries are the most common and serious trauma associated with explosions. Emboli Undissolved solid, liquid, or gaseous matter in the bloodstream that may cause blockage of blood vessels. Dyspnea Labored or difficult breathing. Hemoptysis Expectoration of blood from the respiratory tract. Pneumothorax Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the chest wall and lung. Key Point Provide careful positive pressure ventilations to any blast injury patient with serious dyspnea. Key Point The potential for injury from a fall depends on the height and stopping distance.