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54 Cards in this Set

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Key Point
Blunt trauma is the most common cause of death and disability.
Key Point
Blunt trauma can be deceptive because the true nature of the injury is often hidden and evidence of the serious injury is very subtle or even absent.
Kinetics
The branch of physics that deals with motion, taking into consideration mass and force.
Inertia
Tendency of an object to remain at rest or remain in motion unless acted upon by an external force.
Motion
The process of changing place; movement.
Energy
The capacity to do work in the strict physical sense.
Kinetic Energy
The energy an object has while it is in motion. It is related to the object's mass and velocity.
Mass
A measure of the matter that an object contains; the property of a physical body that gives the body inertia.
Velocity
The rate of motion in a particular direction in realtion to time.
Kinetic Energy Formula
Kinetic Energy = Mass x Velocity²
________________
2
Acceleration
The rate at which speed or velocity increases.
Deceleration
The rate at which speed or velocity decreases.
Key Point
Trauma can be catagorized as either blunt or penetrating.
Force Equation
Force = Mass x Acceleration (or deceleration)
Exsanguination
The draining of blood to the point at which life cannot be sustained.
Events of Vehicle Collision
Vehicle collision
Body collision
Organ collision
Secondary collision
Additional impacts
Key Point
Secondary collisions may cause a patient's injuries or increase their severity.
Key Point
Restraints have had a profound effect in reducing crash-related deaths.
Key Point
Seat belt use should be mandatory for all EMS personnel.
Key Point
While airbags can cause injury, they have, overall, greatly reduced injury and death in vehicular crashes.
Key Point
Properly used child safety seats provide the best protection for infants and small children riding in vehicles.
Types of Vehicle Impact
Frontal
Lateral
Rotational
Rear-end
Rollover
Key Point
Frontal impact is the most common type of vehicle crash.
Mechanisms Associated with Frontal Impacts
Down-and-under pathway
Up-and-Over pathway
Ejection
Key Point
The up-and-over pathway accounts for over half of the deaths in vehicular crashes.
Axial Loading
Application of the forces of trauma along the axis of the spine; this often results in compression fractures of the spine.
Crumple Zone
The region of a vehicle designed to absorb the energy of impact.
Key Point
Maintain a higher index of suspicion of serious injury when assessing lateral imoact crashes because the degree of injury may be greater than the damamge alone would indicate.
Oblique
Having a slanted position or direction.
Key Point
The visual examination of the crash scene can tell you a great deal about what happened to the patient(s)and what wjat injuries should be suspected.
Key Point
Alcohol intoxication is associated with most serious crashes.
Key Point
Head and body cavity trauma account for 85 percent of deaths in vehicular crashes.
Key Point
Serious trauma is likely with even low-speed motorcycle crashes because of the lack of protective vehicular structure.
Key Point
Helmets reduce the incidence and severity of head injuries in motorcycle crashes, but they have no effect on the incidence of spinal trauma.
Key Point
In pedestrian-vs-automobile crashes, adults tend to turn away from the oncoming vehicle before impact, while children turn toward it.
Key Point
Recreational vehicles usually lack the structure and the restraint systems that offer significant protection to
Oxidizer
An agent that enhances combustion of a fuel.
Pressure Wave
Area of over-pressure that radiates outward from an explosion.
Mechanisms Associated with Blasts
Pressure wave
Blast wind
Projectiles
Personnel displacement
Confined spaces and structural collapses
Burns
Overpressure
A rapid increase then decrease in atmospheric pressure created by an explosion.
Key Point
Underwater detonation increases the lethal range of an explosion threefold.
Blast Wind
The air movement caused as the heated and pressurized products of an explosion move outward.
Ordnance
Military weapons and munitions.
Flechettes
Arrow-shaped projectiles found in some military ordnance.
Key Points
The most lethal explosions are those causing structural collapses followed by those in confined spaces.
Incendiary
An agent that combusts easily or creates combustion.
Blast Injury Phases
Primary - caused by heat of explosion and overpressure wave
Secondary - caused by blast projectiles
Tertiary - caused by personnel displacement and structural collapse.
Key Point
Pulmonary injuries are the most common and serious trauma associated with explosions.
Emboli
Undissolved solid, liquid, or gaseous matter in the bloodstream that may cause blockage of blood vessels.
Dyspnea
Labored or difficult breathing.
Hemoptysis
Expectoration of blood from the respiratory tract.
Pneumothorax
Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the chest wall and lung.
Key Point
Provide careful positive pressure ventilations to any blast injury patient with serious dyspnea.
Key Point
The potential for injury from a fall depends on the height and stopping distance.