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55 Cards in this Set

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What is the most common cause of trauma death and disability?
Blunt trauma
True or false: Penetrating trauma can be deceptive because the true nature of the injury is often hidden and evidence of the serious injury is very subtle or even absent.
False. This describes blunt trauma
Define kinetics
The branch of physics that deals with motion, taking into consideration mass and force.
Define inertia
Tendency of an object to remain at rest or remain in motion unless acted upon by an external force
Define motion
The process of changing place; movement
Define energy
The capacity to do work in the strict physical sense
Define kinetic energy
The energy an object has while it is in motion. It is related to the object's mass and velocity.
Define mass
A measure of the matter that an object contains; the property of a physical body that gives the body inertia.
Define velocity
The rate of motion in a particular direction in relation to time.
Define acceleration
The rate at which speed or velocity increases.
Define deceleration
The rate at which speed or velocity decreases.
What are the two categories of trauma?
Blunt and penetrating
Define exsanguination
The draining of blood to the point at which life cannot be sustained (severe blood loss).
What are the events of an MVC in order?
Vehicle collision
Body collision
Organ collision
Secondary collision
Additional collision
True or false: Secondary collisions may cause a pts injuries or increase their severity.
True
_________________ have had a profound effect in reducing crash-related deaths.
Restraints
Seat belts use should be mandatory/optional for all EMS personnel.
mandatory
True or false: While airbags cause injury, they have, overall, greatly reduced injury and death in MVC's.
True
What is the best protection for infants and small children riding in vehicles?
Properlt used child safety seats
What are the different types of vehicle impacts?
Frontal
Lateral
Rotational
Rear-end
Rollover
What is the most common type of vehicle collision impact?
Frontal
What are the injury mechanisms associated with frontal impacts?
Down-and-under
Up-and-over
Ejection
What injury pathyway accounts for over half of the deaths in vehicular crashes?
Up-and-over
Define axial loading
Application of the forces of trauma along the axis of the spine; this often results in compression fractures of the spine.
Define crumple zone
The region of a vehicle designed to absorb the energy of impact.
True or false: Occupants of an vehicle with a crumple zone may experience greater forces in a collision even though the vehicle may not appear severly damaged.
False. Occupants without a crumple zone may experience greater forces in a collision even though damage to the vehicle may not appear as severe as damage to a vehicle with a crumple zone involved in a similar crash.
What is a cause of "paper bag" syndrome?
Compression of the chest against the steering column.
The degree of injury may be greater than the damage alone would suggest in what type of crash?
Lateral, because of this you should maintain a higher than normal index of suspicion.
Define oblique
Having a slanted position or direction
True or false: A visual examination of the crash scene can tell you a great deal about what happened to the pt(s) and what injuries should be suspected.
True
Figures from states requiring mandatory ETOH level testing after fatal MVC's reveal that more than what percent of drivers were legally intoxicated?
50%
Head and body cavity trauma account for what percent of deaths in vehicular crashes?
85%
Why is serious trauma likely even in low-speed motorcycle crashes?
Because of the lack of protective vehicle structure.
True or false: Helmets reduce the incidence and severity of head injuries in motorcycle crashes, but they have no effect on the incidence of spinal trauma.
True. Helmets can reduce the incidence and severity of head trauma by 50 to 66%.
In auto vs. pedestrian crashes, children are likely to turn in which direction?
Toward the vehicle
In auto vs. pedestrian crashes, adults are likely to turn in which direction?
Away from the vehicle
Define oxidizer
An agent that enhances combustion of a fuel.
Define pressure wave
Area of over-pressure that radiates outward from an explosion
What are the injury mechanisms associated with blasts?
Pressure wave
Blast wind
Projectiles
Personnel displacement
Confined spaces and structural collapse
Burns
Define overpressure
A rapid increase then decrease in atmospheric pressure created by an explosion.
Underwater detonation increases the lethal range of an explosion by what percent?
300
Define blast wind
The air movement caused as the heated and presurized products of an explosion moves outward
Define ordinance
Military weapons and munitions
Define flechettes
Arrow-shaped projectiles found in some military ordinance
The most lethal explosions are those causing _________________ ________________ followed by those in confined spaces.
structural collapse
Define incendiary
An agent that combusts easily or creates combustion.
What are the 3 blast injury phases?
Primary - caused by heat of an explosion and overpressure wave
Secondary - caused by blast projectiles
Tertiary - caused by personnel displacement and structural collapse
True or false: Secondary injuries may be as or more severe than the promary blast injuries.
True
What is the most common and severe injury associated with explosions?
Pulmonary trauma
Define emboli
Undissolved solid, liquid, or gaseous matter in a bloodstream that may cause blockage of blood vessels.
Define dyspnea
Labored or difficulty breathing
Define hemoptysis
Expectoration of blood from the respiratory tract
Define pneumothorax
Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the chest wall and lung
_______________ _______________ _______________ should be provided to any blast injury pt with serious dyspnea.
Careful positive pressure
The potential for injury from a fall depends on what factors?
Height of fall
Stopping distance