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86 Cards in this Set

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The Basic structural unit of all plants and animals
cell
outer covering of a cell
cell membrane
able to allow some substances through the cell membrane
semipermeable
thick fluid or protoplasm that fills the cell
cytoplasm
structures that perform specific fucntions within a cell
organelles
the organelle within the cell that contains the DNA
nucleus
high energy compound that is present in all cells. mainly muscles after they are split my enzymes, splitting occurs and energy is then present.
adenosine triphosphate
the sum of all of the cells, tisues, organs and organ systems that make up a living being
organism
group of cells that perform a certain function
tissue
lining of skin or mucous membranes or lining of the intestinal tract
epithelial tissue
tissue that is capable of contraction when stimulated
muscle tissue
the most abundant tissue. provides support, connection and insulation
connective tissue
tissue that transmits electrical impulses through the body
nerve tissue
a group of tissues funstioning together(heart,liver, brain)
organ
group of organs that work together (heart, gastrointestinal system
organ system
body systems that work to reverse or compensate for a pathophysiological process
negative feedback loop
natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady environment
homeostasis
structure of an organism
anatomy
functions of an organism
physiology
the total changes that take place during physiological processes.
metabolism
effects of disease (2)
local and systemic
Conrtol Systems
nervous and endocrine
total amount of water in the body at one time
total body water
the fluid inside the body cells
intracellular fluid
the fluid outside the body cells
extracellular fluid
fluid within the circulatory system
intravascular fluid
the fluid in the body tissues that is outside the cells and outside the vascular system
interstitial fluid
substance that dissolves other substances
solvent
normal tension in the cell
tugor
a substance that in water, seperates into electrically charged particles
electrolyte
seperate or break down
dissociate
a charged particle
ion
an ion with a positive charge
cation
an ion with a negaive charge
anion
substance that preserves or restores a normal acid balance by increasing or decreasing the hydrogen ions
buffer
equal in concentration of solute molecules
isotonic
having a greater concentration of solute molecules
hypertonic
having a lesser concentration of solute molecules
hypotonic
the difference of concentration between solutions on oppposite sides of a semipermeable membrane
osomtic gradient
movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to a area of lesser concentration
diffusion
passage of a solvent through the membrane
osmosis
movement of a substance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient; that is from the lesser area to the greater concentrated area or the opposite diretion of diffusion
active transport
diffusion of a substance such as glucose through a cell membrane with a helper protein
facilitated diffusion
concentration of a solute per kilogram of water
osmolality
concentration of a solute per litre of water
osmolarity
the pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane that, if hypertonic, tends to pull water from the other side of the membrane
osmotic pressure
a form of osmotic pressure exerted by the large protein molecules, or colloids present in plasma.
oncotic force
blood pressure or force against vessel walls created by the heart beat.
hydrostatic pressure
movement of water out of the plasma across the cap. membrane into the intertitial space
filtration
the total loss of water from blood plasma across the cap membrane into the intertitial space
net filtraion
potential for amount of hydrogen
pH
high concentration of hydrogen ions or a pH below 735
acidosis
low concentration of hydrogen ions or a pH higher than 745
alkalosis
bicarbonate buffer system, respiration, kidney function
mechanisms to remove hydrogen ion
cell membrane, cytoplasm,organelles
elements of the cell
layers of skin
epi, dermis, subcutaneous tissue
outer most layer of skin
epidermis
fatty secretion of the sebaceous gland that helps keep skin pliable and waterproof
sebum
true skin or corium, covers the blood vessels and nerves associated with the skin
dermis
glands within the dermis secreting sebum
sebaceous glands
gland that secrete sweat
sudoriferious glands
body layer beneath the dermis
subcutaneous tissue
body system that produces and develops blood cells
hematopoietic system
what system has bone marrow, liver, spleen, kids, blood
hematopoietic system
a cell from which various types of blood cells can form
pluripotent stem cell
process where pluripotent stem cells grow into various types of blood cells
hematopoiesis
RBC, WBC, Platlets are...
formed elements
hormone responsible for RBC production
erthyropoietin
oxygen bearing molecule in the RBC
hemoglobin
pO2
partial pressure of oxygen
pCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide
phenomenon where a dcecrease in acidity causes an increase in the quantity of oxygen that binds the hemoglobin
bohr effect
chemical in RBC that affects hemoglobins affinity for oxygen
2,3-diphosphoglycerate
process of producing red blood cells
eyrthropoiesis
destruction of RBC
hemolysis
trapping of RBC by an organ
sequestration
the packed cell volume of RBC per unit of blood
hematocrit
white blood cell
leukocyte
when white blood cells move in response to chemical signals
chemotaxis
when WBC engulf and destroy invaders
phagocytosis
when stem cells turn from cells into immature white blood cells
leukopoiesis
white blood cell blasts
myelo, mon, lymph
WBC categories
granulocytes, monocytes,lymphocytes
Granulocyte Classifications
Basophils, Eosinohils, Neutrophils
a larvacidal peptide
major basic protein
a low neutrophil count
neutropenia