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20 Cards in this Set

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Classifying Blood
-circulatory system
-cardio system
-lymphatic system
-hematological system
Why is blood red?
hemoglobin
Functions of Blood
1. Transportation
a. nutrients
b. oxygen
c. hormones
d. carbon dioxide
e. wastes
2. Protection
a. from harmful microorganisms and their toxins
b. phagocyte WBC
c. proteins from antibodies
d. fluid loss by clotting
3. Regulation
a. blood regulates the acid-base balance of the body fluids by buffers
b. body temp. by cooling or heating parts of the body.
c. controlled by the hypothalamus which controls the volume of blood flow to areas of the body
Properties of Blood
1. Color: hemoglobin
2. Volume: 4-6 liters
3. Vicosity: 5x slower than water
4. PH: 7.35-7.45
--indicate the state of health of a person--
Blood Plasma
-liquid portion of blood (92% water)
-yellow but clear
-valuable transport medium for
a. elements
b. gases
c. nutrients
d. hormones
e. electrolytes
Analysing Blood
1. Hematocrit: determines the % of blood cells in sample
2. Blood smear: drop of blood on a slide and staining it with a dye
Red Blood Cells
carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
Structure of Red Blood Cells
-smallest, flexible disc shaped cells
-thin in center and thick outside
-biconcave for surface are for diffusion of gases
-lack a nucleus during early stages
Life Cycle of Red Blood Cells
-produced in yolk sac, liver and spleen in early life
-later in red bone marrow
-life expectancy is 120 days
-liver and kidney control production
WBC
-control disease
-actively move outside the circulatory system
Types of WBC
differ in their:
a. cytoplasm
b. size
c. shape of nucleus
d. response to staining
1. Granulocytes
2. Agramnulocytes
Function of WBC
1. Protection from disease
2. Diapedesis
3. Phagocytosis
4. Pus
5. Antibodies
6. Immunity
7. Histamine
Diapedesis
the moving of WBC through the cells that form the walls of vessels, and thereby move throughout the body freely.
Platelets
-fragment of cells
-no nucleus
-prevents fluid loss
-initiate formation of blood clots
Hemostasis
-the stoppage of bleeding follwing a blood vessel accident
1. Blood Vessel spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Coagulation
Stoppage of Bleeding
1. Blood Vessel Spasm
a. involuntary muscle
b. only 30 min.
c. seritonin may be needed
2. Platelet Plug Formation
a. increase in size, sticky
b. adhere to collagen fibers
3. Coagulation
a. fibrinogen to fibrin
b. platelets release thromboplastin
c. prothtomblin to thrombin
Blood Groups
-based on the reaction between surface proteins and special plasma proteins
1. Aggulinaus
2. Antigens
3. Antibodies
4. Blood Typing
Blood Types Determination
-the presence of certain glycoproteins(proteins attached to carbs) on the surfce of red blood cells
Blood Typing
1. ABO System
a. Type A
b. Type B
c. Type AB
d. Type O
2. RH system which contains the RH antigen
a. RH positive
b. RH negative
Types of Blood Transfusions
1. Autologous: donation for a later surgery (same person)
2. Exchange: direct transfusion from donor to recipient (bed by bed)
3. Indirect: donor blood stored for later use to recipient
4. Reciprocal: transfusion of blood fom a person that has recovered from a contagious infectious disease into the vessels of a patient