Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/194

Click to flip

194 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
6 things Blood does
1. Transports gases-primary is oxygen the structure that transports is red blood cells
2. regulates pH-concentration of hydrogen bonds in body
3. Regulates electrolyte composition
4. to prevent fluid loss from damages tissues or vessels
5. regulates body temperature
6. defends against pathogens and oxins
Whole blood
consists of plasma and formed elements
plasma
liquid and all the stuff dissolved or suspended in it
Plasma Proteins
Albumins
Globulins
Fibrinogen
Albumins
most common functions for osmosis, give blood the ability to maintain its osmotic potiential
Globulins
function for immune system
fibrinogen
functions for blood clotting
Formed elements
RBC WBC and platelets
RBC-Erythrocyte
transports oxygen
WBC-Leukocytes
Regulate immune system
Platelets-Thrombocytes
Small membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm that contain enzymes and clotting factors important to blood clotting
Temperature of blood
38 degrees C and 100.4 F hotter because it picks up muscle heat
Viscoity of blood
5 times thicher than water the proteins and solutes make the blood thicker
pH of blood
7.4 range is 7.35 to 7.45 hydrogens diffuse from tissue to blood and blood gives off to other tissues to maintain pH
acidosis
body is too acidic, too many hydrogen ions it is resipority and metabolic which is a malfunction of the metabolic system
alkaalosis
body is too basic
Venipuncture
puncture to the vein in the cubital part of arm
capillary smear
damage capillary which produces a drop of blood (blood sugar)
Arterial stick
close to surfece, bigger and comes directly from lungs and heart
hematopoiesis
creation of blood
stem cells
immature cells that dont know what kind of cell they are going to be yet
Erythropoietn produces
erythropoiesis-erythroblasts-erythrocyte
How much RBC's are in men and women
women- 4.86X10^6
men- 5.4X10^6 microliters
hematocrit
measure of the percentage of RBC in a volume of blood
37-47%women
40-54% men
Leucopoiesis creates
Myeloblast and monoblasts
5-6 k/mm^3
meyloblast
basophil
eosinophil
neutrophil
monoblast
monocyte
lymphopiesus
lymphoblasts create lymphocytes which produes T-cells, B-cells and NK-cells
megakaryocyte
breakdown into platlets which contain enzymes and clotting factors 250-300k/mm^3
aneruism
rupture of a blood vessel
RED BLOOD CELLS
7 microns in diameter
bi-concave disc
filled with hemoglobin
250million hemogloblin per blood
no mitochondria
no ribosomes-cant fix itself
no neucleus-no mitosis
live 120 days
30 seconds to go from heart to tissue and back
3000 times a day
it can rupture or be phagocytized
rupture
cell membrane splits open and hemoglobin goes into blood plasma. when plasma passed to kidneys the hemoglobin goes in kidneys and then to urine which is called hemoglobinuria
phagocytized RBC
happens in the spleen, liver or bone
globin-protein break into amino acids and reuse them
heme-looses Fe and becomes biliverdin-bilirubin-bile in liver and is used for digestion and released in feces
Hemorrhagic fever
cause your tissue to fall apart and blood goes out. ebola
antigen
a protein and identifier
antibody
a protein that can recognize other proteins
Universal recipitant
AB
universal donor
O
RH
if you have it then you are positive, if you dont have it then you are negative
RH is suspended in plasma
Leukocytes
5 to 6 thousand in each mm^3 of blood most WBC are active in tissues
4 abilities WBC can do
1. Amoeboid movement0 extrudes cell membrane and pulls itself
2. diapedesis-ability to move between cells
3. chemotaxis- responds to chemical signals
4. phagocytosis-the white blood cells eat other things
mast cell
specialized basaphil that is attached to a protein fiber inbetween the cell, it produces histamine which causes imflammation
Hemostasis
state of the blood. process of preventing loss of blood through damaged vessel walls
mega cariocytes
big cells that produce platelets
Vascular clot
small tear, wall of vessel becomes sticky and closes up the wall
platelet plug clot
platelets and walls become sticky and the platelets create a plug where the bigger tear is
clott
fiberin becomes stick with platelets and red blood cells sick to fiberin and go to the major tear to plug the hole
intrinsic pathway
inside slow process
extrinsic pathway
outside patch on the blood vessel
embolus
anything floating in blood
embolism
blood clot stops the distribution flow of the blood
fibrinolysis
breakdown of firbrin starts the clot
t-PA
tissue plasminogen activator
causes plasminogen to become plasmin which plasmin breaks down for fibrin and then the little pieces of the clot begin to break off
clot retraction
erosion-breaking off pieces of clot
fibrin
reienforce the strength of the clot
function of the heart
to move blood through blood vessels
function of blood vessels
set of tubes blood flows through to move throughout the body
systemic circut
pulls oxygen out of blood and you get deoxgeninated blood to go back to heart
aorta
takes blood throughout the body
mediastinum
divided thoracic cavity and is arelor loose connective tissue, passes through the cardiac cavity, hears major structure
pericardium
attached to the wall of the cavity, a membrane and has an epithelial surface
cardiac tamponase
too much fluid in the pericardial sack, or can be filled with blood
funtion of the pericardial fluid
to prevent friction
pericarditis
inflammation of pericardium causes bacterial infection which is not enough fluid for friction
arteries
efferent carry blood away from heart
veins
afferent carry blood to heart
pulmonary circut
carries deoxygenitated blood
base
broad part of heart, makes up of the 2 atrium
apex
point, bottom of ventrivles, rests on the diaphragm
cardiac notch
space in the left lung for heart
sulcus
groove
interventricular sulcus
runs between the two ventricles
coronary sulcus
grooce where the 2 atrea connect to the 2 ventricles across the heart
anastomose
where 2 structures come together and then split and this is an alternate route to send some blood to another tissue
Miolnfarction-MI
heart attack-heart tissue dies and artert becomes blocked. Infarct-dead tissue
interatrial septum
separates the tissue between 2 atrium
interventricular septum
separates the tissue between 2 ventricles
division between atria and ventricles
atrioventricular disc
function of the AV disc
1. separates atria and ventricles, fiberous structure
2. point of attachment 4"part muscle fibers" fiberous skeleton-AV disc
3. electrically isolates the atria from the ventricle
endocarium
inner lining of that lines chambers of heart
myocardium
cardiac muscle cells
epicardium-viscerial pericardium
outer membrane epithelial surface
functional syncitium
all contract at the same time, functional unit. intercolated disc cause this
myoglobin
molecule inside the muscle cell that bonds to oxygen. stores oxygen
diastole
when the heart muscle is relaxed
atrial-when atrials are relaxed
ventricular- when ventricles are relaxed
systole
when heart muscles contract
atrial- when atrials contract
ventricular-when ventricles contract
Preload flow
atria and ventricles are both relaxed
fills up 7-% of ventricle
gravity causes blood to flow into ventricle
atria contracts which adds 30% to the amount in ventricle (atrial kick)
Frank starling law
the amount that goes in equals to the amount that goes out. important with respect to cardia output
SV-stroke volume
how much blood that is pushed out of the heart per beat
80ml/beat
HR-Heart Rate
number of heart beats per minute of time
70beat/min
(50-80)
CO-Cardiac Output
how much blood thats pushed out of the heart per minute of time
SVxHR=CO
Average total volume of blood
5 liters
afterload
resistance to blood flow when you have blood left in the ventricle to where preload isnt as successful. this can cause damage to heart, hear attacks and resistance
heart sounds
s1-Lubb-when AV valves close (ventricles contract)
S2-dupp-when semilumnar valves close ventricular diastole (prevent backflow when ventricles relax)
S3-turblant filling-not filling correctly blood flowing in a trublant fashion into ventricles cardiac heart failure
S4-atrial backfilling into still ventricle-doesnt push blood out. can be caused by hypertension
heart murmer
small amount og regurgnated blood, tricuspid or bicuspid isnt functioning properly. AV valves are malformed
Chordae tendonea
attached to bottom of valve
Sino Atrial Node (SA node)
a small group of cells that are hypoplarized. a small stimulus will create an action potiential that spreads throughout atrea. also called a pacemaker
70-80 beat/min
what happens when the wall of the right atrium stretches
causes an action potiential
AV Node
back up pacemaker. 40-60 beat/min
when signal gets to AV node it stops breifly and it gives atria time to finish contacting to fill up ventricle
Bundle of His
conducting fibers that carry action potientials from AV node to Apex of heart
Purkinje fibers
spread the action potienttial thorughout the ventricles. then the ventricles contract
Bradycardia
slow heart rate
Tachycardia
fast heart rate
ECG-EKG
electrocardiogram-measure of the electrical activity of the heart
P wave
atrial systole-atria muscle fibers are contracting
QRS
Ventricular systole-ventricles contracting, blood is moving out of ventricles into semilumnar valves
T
ventricular diastole- ventricles relax
ANS
sympathetic-norepinephrine
parasympathetic-ACH
vagus nerve-cranial berve number 10
Elvis
Where are the cardiac control centers
in the brainstem
where is the cardioacceletatory center found
in the medulla oblongata
where is the cardioinhibitory center found
medulla oblongata
stress
nor adrenaline, nor epinephrine, can cause heart rate to speed up
Glucocorticoids
supress immune system
how can you fix chronic stress
stress management, relaxation, aerobic exercise programs
what happens during chronic stress
reduced fratility, immune system, pathological behaviors
enlarged adrenal glands
cause a deteriation of blood vessels in heart, kidneys and liver
liver- has to clean everything overtime
kidneys-filteration overtime
vascular
system of tubes the blood flows though, the blood proteins, RBC and platelets should stau in these tubes
Tunica (intima) interna
adjecent to the blood inside the vessel, simple squamous epithelium
tunica media
elastic fibers, Smooth Muscle, irregular dense connective tissue
tunica (adventitia) externa
outer layer, simple squamous epithelial tissue
smooth muscle
gives you the ability to control the diameter of blood vessels
parasympathetic
activates blood flow to abdonimal cavities, controls by changing diameter
arteriole
smallest artery
precapillary sphinctor
circular muscle that can close off capillary beds
venous capillary
blood has to fold to get through wall made up of a single layer of squamous cells
venule
smallest vein
vein valves
helps to prevent backflow
blood movement
blood moves from high to low pressure
atrial contraction
diffusion-heart muscle squeezes blood to put pressure on it
atrial pulse flow
everytime the heart beats it puts out an amount of blood. less osomotoc pressure
venous contraction
skeletal muscle contraction which puts pressure on the vein and causes blood to flow to heart
venous steady flow
what goes out must go in
venous respiratory pump
moving air inside the chest cavity for having low pressure, ribcage raises diaphragm drops
venous gravity
12-16ml of mercury-if blood is going to your feet then it has to overcome gravity so it has more osomotic pressure
constant viscosity
speed at which liquid flows
constant turblance
anything that impedes the blood flow, increased pressure
change-vascular
due to vaso constriction/dialation if you constrict the vein to a smaller diameter then that increases pressure. if you dialate it then it decreases pressure
average of systolc and diastolic pressure
120/80
range
(100-130 (140))/60-90
pulse pressure
the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
finestrae
holes in the capillary wall so that small platelets proteins and RBC cant pass
blood pressure
capillary blood pressyre, pushes water and other small particles through the finestrae and then goes to intersitial sluid
water soluble
pass through 2 cell membranes to get through capillary bed, diffusion occurs
Lipid soluble
diffuse straight through cell membrane
Oxygen and CO2
diffuse easily through cell membrane
osomotic pressure
albumins, higher pressure of water outside, so it goes in and sends water to cells
edema
extra fluid in the innersitial spaces
venous pressure
osomotic pressure is greater than blood pressure
10mm of Hg to overcome gravity
what happens when blood pressure is equal
water isnt moving in or out
laying vs. standing
once you fall your body levels and gravity isnt a factor
exercise
puts a contraction factor on your veins to go to heart so there is constant blood flow
sounds of korotokoff
sounds you listen for measuring the air pressure inside the cuff
sphygmomanometer
cuff on a blood pressure machine fill to about 180 wheen you hear the whisp is when the blood pressure is greater than the aur pressure in the cuff
what does cardio vascular regulation have to do
1. go to the place at the right time
2. go to the right place
3. doesnt effect blood flow to vital organs
what can affect blood flow
1. loacl factors-whether you have precapillary sphencitor, deals with blood clotting tissue damage loacl hormones-prostoglandins
2.neural factors ANS-find in the brain stem
3. Endocrine system- aldostrone, renin, adrenaline, norepinephrine, ANP, ACH
short term
cardiac output peripheral resistance-maintains blood pressure
longterm
work together to maintain blood volume
vasodilators
diameter of vessel gets bigger
vasoconstrictors
decreases volume
barroreceptors
respond to stretch and are in the walls of ------ organs
caroted sinus
aortic sinuses
atrial receptors
chemoreceptors
respond to changes in pH, Co2, O2 concentration in blood of cerebral spinal fluid
Light exercise
vasodilation increased blood flow to muscle venous return increases, breathing more respiratory pump, cardiac output increases
heaver exercise
releases adrenaline, increase in cardiac output flow is restricted to nonessential organs. atrial blood pressure increases, supply of blood to brain wouldnt be affected
regular exercise
athletes-larger hearts, loarger stroke volume
cholestrol reduces, blood pressure is lowered. plaque-slower plaque formation
MI's-reduced heart attack by 50%
healthy diet, exercise, nonsmoker and weight control all helps
autonomic nervous system
efferent uses neurotransmitters to control sympatheitc and parasympathetic
hemorrhaging
failure of the local hemostasis vessel walls are really damaged
what happens when hemorrhaging occurs
1st maintains blood pressure through vaso constrivion maintain peripheral blood flow
2nd blood volume back up
venous reserve
slow moving blood 20%-works for this much blood loss 1 liter of blood and body can recover
lots of blood loss
to restore blood volume, heart rate increases 180-200 beats/min hormones-ADH, renin, aldostrone and ANP
circle of willis
the most important astamose to supply blood to brain
hepatic portal system
capillary bed in liver. takes rich blood to liver so liver can clean it
hepatic portal ven around capillaries
absorbs nutrients in digestive tract that feeds into hepatic portal vein then to sinusoids
sinusoids
cells in live, more efficient exchange system, has in complete lining direct contact so that cells have to go through one membrane
liver
detocify stuff in blood
hepatocyte
liver cell that detoxifys blood
blood brain barrier
less efficient way of exchange
albumin
helps regulate pH of body
what happens when the baby is born
foramen ovale closes and becomes fossa ovale
ductus arteriosis closes and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum
ductus venosus becomes the belly button
matrix
the most common repeated unit
lymphatic system
slow, made of lymphatic components lymphatic and immune system put together
1. to return excess interstitial fluid to the venous system
2. production and maintance and distribution of lymphocyes
3. distributes hormones
3.6 liters/day lymph
lymph
fluid connective tissue, cmes from the fluid in intersitiial spaces from blood, filters lymph once it goes into lymphatics-creates lymph
lymphatics
name given to lymph vessels
Thoracic collecting duct
dumps into left subclavian vein
right lymphetic duct
dumps into right subclavian vein
skeletal muscles contract to help to
move blood, respiratory pump, gravity, pressure, also valves to help it not move backwards
lymphedema
excess fluid build-up due to a blocked lymphatic
nodules
lymphatic tissue that is intregrated into the lining of mucus membranes, first line of defense from things outside to insude, very dispersed tissue
tonsils
pharyngeal-loacted in pharynx also called adnoids (2)
palatine-located on soft palate, behind hard palate (2)
lingual-on the tongue, back of tongue (1)
lymphoid organs
surrounded by a sheet of tissue dense irregular connective tissue which forms a capsule
node, thymus, spleen
Nodes
cervical-cervial region of neck
axillary-armpit
cubital-middle of arm
mammary-breast
lumbar-bottom of vertebrae
pelvic-pelvic region
inguinal-where leg connects with pelvis
popliteal-back of knee
cancer
abnormal growth in cells and dont stop going through mitosis, your body isnt recognizing as abnormal so your body doesnt kill them, if the cells break off into the lymph then they will lodge in a lymph node and keep growing
thymus
at puberty largest size is going to be. lymppcytes actively divide to become T-cells
Thymosins
tells immature lymphocytes to become T-cells
spleen
left upper quadrant behind stomach, stores blood
blood function of spleen
filters blood, phagocytize
spleen capsule
surrounded by a capsule and is extremely fragile, a concussion injury can cause it to rupture which cant make a clot so they bleed internally