Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/49

Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cause of Babesiosis
Babesia microti
Transmission of Babesia
Deer tics
Those at risk for severe infection
Immunocompromised
Asplenic
Elderly
Presentation of babesiosis
Hemolytic anemia w/fever, weakness, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly
Treatment for Babesiosis
Clindamycin and quinine sulfate
African Sleeping Sickness
Trypanosome brucei gambiense
T. brucei rhodesiense
Transmission of sleeping sickness
Tsetse fly
(and sexually according to Dr. House)
Where do you find T. gambiense? What animal is it transmited through? Are pentamidine and eflornithine effective?
West and Central Africa
Transmitted through pigs
Yes
Where do you find T. rhodesiense? What animal is it transmited through? Are pentamidine and eflornithine effective?
East Africa
Cows
No
Trypanosome invasion occurs where early in the dz? In late dz?
Early: Blood and lymph
Late: CNS
Course of trypanosome meningoencephalitis
Somnolence --> Coma --> Death
Treatment for the intital stages of Sleeping sickness
Suramin (doesn't cross BBB)
What drug is coadministered with suramin in T. gambiense infection
Pentamidine
Treatment once trypanosome infection has reached the brain?
Melarsoprol *extremely toxic, but 80-90% cure rate
T gambiense relapse treatment
Eflornithine
T. rhodesiense relapse treatment
Re-administer Melarsoprol
Tranmission of T. cruzi
Blood sucking triatomid bugs
Blood transfusion
Transplacentally
Reservoir hosts for T. cruzi
Domestic animals
Acute Chagas dz usually affects who?
Children
Where do trypomastigotes divide into amastigotes?
Inside cells
What systems are seriously infected by T. cruzi? What is the consequence?
Heart
Reticulo-endothelial system
ANS
Can lead to cardiac myopathy and chronic dz of the GI tract
Treatment for T. cruzi? Can you use these for acute and chronic dz?
Nifurtimox and benznidazole
* Not effective against chronic dz
Transmission of Leshmaniasis
3 kinds
Sandfly
Visceral (kala azar)
Cutaneous
Mucocutaneous
In visceral leshmania, where do the promastigotes transform into amastigotes
macrophages and other mononuclear phagocytes --> macrophage rupture
Infection of visceral leishmania
Intermittent fever, dysfxn of liver, spleen, bone marrown, and lymph nodes
*80% fatal
Treatment for leishmania
Sodium stibogluconate
2nd line agent for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis
Amphotericin B
2nd line agent for visceral leishmaniasis
Pentamidine
Drugs used to treat blood and tissue parasites
Eflornithine (difluoromethylornithine-DFMO)
Melarsoprol (MEL B)
Nifurtimox
Sodium stibogluconate
Suramin
DFMO use
late stage trypanosomiasis
MOA of DFMO
Suicide inhibitor of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase
*10 fold greater affinity for the parasite enzyme than for the host enzyme
PK of DFMO
Associated w/disappearance of trypanosomes from the body fluids w/i one day.
SE of DFMO
Diarrhea
Abdominal pain
Anemia
Use of MEL B
Organic arsenic, used for meningoencephalitic stages of sleeping sickness
MOA of Mel B
Arsenics react w/sulfhydrl groups in proteins, inactivating enzymes
Admin of Mel B
Very toxic!
Give by slow i.v.
Side Effects of Mel B
Hypertension
Abdominal pain
Vomiting
Proteinuria
Peripheral neuropathy
Rashes
Reactive encephalopathy* most severe
Nifurtimox activity
Active against the amastigote and extracellular mastigote stages
Not effective in the acute or chronic stages
MOA of Nifurtimox
Converted to a nitrofuran radical then to a superoxide radical and peroxide
All three forms are toxic
PK of Nifurtimox
Well absorbed from GI, extensively metabolized
SE of Nifurtimox
High incidence of CNS disturbances w/transitory convulsive episodes, stiffness, and limb weakness
Use of sodium stibogluconate
All three forms of Leishmaniasis
MOA of SS
Prodrug converted to trivalent form which may (-) parasite's phosphofructokinase the rate limiting step in glycolysis
SE of SS
Highly Toxic!
Muscle pain
Joint stiffness
Nausea
Flattened T wave
Occasionally weakness, liver damage, and bradycardia
Also myocardial damage, renal damage, shock and sudden death
Use of Suramin
Early infections w/T gambiese and rhodesiense

Combined w/diethylcarbamazine to treat O. volvulus infection
MOA of Suramin
Selectively endocytosed by parasites
Admin of suramin
Slow i.v.
SE of suramin
Shock
Coma
*give small test dose first
Paresthesias
Hyperesthesias
Peripheral neuropthy
Photophobia
Nephrotoxic *proteinuria is frequent
Why does suramin hang around in the blood for so long?
Tightly bound to plasma proteins