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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What % of peptic ulcers is caused by H. pylori
70-90%
Types of treatment of H.pylori
Quadruple or triple therapy
Quadruple therapy
PPI + metronidazole(antibiotic) + tetracycline + bismuth subsalicylate
Triple therapy
PPI/rantidine bismuth citrate + 2 of amoxicillin/metronidazole/clarithromycin
Why use Pepto Bismol in treatment of H. pylori
It has weak antibacterial activity
Strange adverse effect of Pepto Bismol
Black stool!
Prokinetic Agents
(3 types)
D2 receptor antags
5-HT3 receptor antags
5-HT4 receptor agonist
Prokinetic agents MA
Increased gastric emptying by inhibiting adrenergic input
* slow gastric emptying part of many GI disorders
Metoclopramide
Benzamide derivative, 5-HT4 agonist and DA antag
Effects of Metoclopramide
Raised LES pressure, increased rate of emptying, decreased small bowel transit
Why can you use Metoclopramide as an antiemetic
Freely enters the CNS to (-) DA receptors
What are the expected side effects of dopamine antagonism?
Hyperprolactinemia
Galactorrhea
Parkinsonism
Somnolence, nervousness, dizziness, depression, and diarrhea
Dicyclomine and Hyocyamine
Antispasmodics (antimuscarinics) used to treat IBS or peptic ulcers
Emesis is controlled where
Emetic center in the area prostrema
Emesis is promoted by what?
Serotonin on 5-HT3 receptors

DA on D2 receptors in AP and Solitary tract nucleus

ACH on M1 receptors in AP, STN, and cerebellum
Oops, two more things that promote emesis
Histamine on H1 receptors in AP, STN, and cerebellum

Delayed gastric emptying
D2 receptor antagonists that inhibit emesis
Benzamide derivative:
Metoclopramide

Phenthiazines:
Chlorpromazine(Thorazine)
Prochlorperazine(Compazine)
Promethazine
Action of phenthiazines
(-) D2 receptors in the Chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)
*remember side effects from anti-psych lecture
Side effects of phenthiazines
Hypotension, wt. gain, sedation, extrapyramidal effects
Droperidol
D2 antagonist- prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting
Side effects of Droperidol
Hypotension, drowsiness, dysphoria, FATAL CARDIAC ARRYTHMIAS
5-HT3 receptor antagonists
(there are 4)
Ondansetron
Dolasteron
Granisetron
Palonsetron
Action of 5-HT3 antagonists
Acts soley on these receptors w/no extrapyramidal effects
Use of 5-HT3 antagonists
Suppress emesis associated with radiation therapy or post-op
Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist
Aprepitant
Use of Aprepitant
(-) chemotherapy induced emesis
H1 antihistamines and antimuscarinics used for motion sickness
Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
Scopolamine
Drugs used to treat IBD (UC and Chron's)
Sulfasalazine
Mesalamine
Balsalazide (mesalamine prodrug)
MA of drugs that treat IBD
Suppress production of Arachodonic acid
Drug used to treat hiccups :)
Cholopromazine
yes, the anti-psychotic
How many muscles does it take to smile? To frown?
17 vs. 43