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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the symptoms of MI
Dysnea(shortness of breath), leg edema, chest pain, palpitations, hemoptysis(blood from resp. tract) and Syncope
How is an MI diagnosed?
EKG-st segment, Blood Work
What is the treatment for an MI?
nitrates, Beta-blockers, digitalis, oxygen.
What is a surgical treatment for MI?
angioplasty of the coronary arteries.
What are three reasons for a bypass of the coronary artery?
1) unstable angina
2)left main coronary artery obstruction
3) severe narrowing of coronary arteries.
What is a common symptom which patients present with for herniated discs?
Acute back pain which ussually resolves
When is a patient a candidate for surgery?
If there is persistant radiculopathy for 1-2 months with failed cons. manage. An MRI should be ordered.
What must show up on the MRI to contribute to the patient's reason for surgery?
There must be lumbar disc syndrome that correlates with the herniated disc.
Herniation at root L3
Pain in Ingiunal Area
Herniation at root L4
Weak: Quads
Sense Loss: ankle
Pain: Anterior thigh
Dimin. Reflex: Knee Jerk
Herniation at root L5
Weak: Tibialis Anterior
Sense: Dorsal Foot
Pain: Lat. Leg
Herniation at Root S1
Weak: Gastrocnemius
Sense: Lat. Foot
Pain: Post. Leg
Reflex: Ankle jerk
When is conservative managment not appropriate for herniated lumbar discs?
Anyone who has a nuerological deficit(new foot drop), cuada equina , urinary retention.
What is cauda equina syndrome?
group of finding that occur during the compressin of lumbosacral roots
What are the possible cuases of Cauda Esquina?
Tumor, spinal epidural hematoma or trauma.
What are the inherent properties of NSC?
Migration and integration
How are NSC defined?
There are not immunihisto methods yet, so they are defined operationaly
What are the three properties of NSC
1) Multipotency 2) ability to repopulate the an ablated region 3) Self-renewal
What are some antigenic markers used to distinguish NSCs from other cell types?
1) Nestin
2) Musashi
3) AC133
What is nestin?
It is an intermediate filament consistent with an immature nueroectodermal lineage.
What is Musashi?
It is an RNA binding protein.
What is AC133?
It is a cell surface marker.
What and where bathes the spinal cord?
The CSF within the thecal sac
How can the CSF be sampled easily?
By a lumbas puncture of fluid from the lumbar cistern
What three things does the spinal column provide?
1) Protection
2) Support
3) Flexibility in the trunk
What is complete spinal cord injury?
patients who have fixed neurological deficits despite aggressive treatment.
What are the symptoms of spinal cord injury?
1)Hypoxia
2) Shock
3) Spinal deformity
What is spinal shock?
Loss of all neurological function below the level of spinal cord injury.
What are the tree tissues that create NSC?
Embyonic, neonatal, and adult nervous.
What is the principle difference between human and mouse NSC?
The length of the cell cycle
What happens to NSC after being maintained in serum -free medium?
They form clusters, neurospheres.
What connects the left pulmonary artery to the aorta?
The ligamentum arterosum.
Where is the aortic valve most audible?
The left 5th intracostal space.
What is an open Pneumothorax?
When air enters the pleural space preventing the expansion of the lung.
What is hemothorax?
blood between the plueral space leading to a decreased circulation.
Tension pneumothorax
chest wall injury leading to an accumulation of air in plural cavity with each breath.
List the frequency of lung cancer types from most common to least common.
Adenocarcinoma>Squamous cell>Oat Cell> Large cell.