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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What constitutes the Triangle of Auscultation?
Bounded superiorly by the trapezius, inferiorly by the latissimus dorsi, and laterally by the vertebral border of the scapula.

Good place to place stethoscope to hear breath sounds.
What muscles attach the scapula to the trunk?
Pectoralis major, serratus anterior, trapezius, rhomboids (major and minor), and levator scapulae
What would occur if the long thoracic nerve was damaged, paralyzing the serratus anterior?
Winging of the scapula
What muscles protract the scapula?
Serratus anterior and pectoralis minor
What muscles retract the scapula?
Trapezius (middle) and rhomboids
What muscles elevate the scapula?
Levator scapulae and trapezius (upper)
What muscles depress the scapula?
Pectoralis minor, trapezius (lower) and latissimus dorsi (when it attaches to the inferior scapula)
Where does rotation occur in the scapula?
Around a horizontal axis through the middle of the scapular spine and the sternoclavicular joint
What muscles can medially rotate the scapula? What is medial rotation also known as?
Levator scapulae, rhomboids, and pectoralis major

Medial rotation is also known as downward rotation, as the glenoid in pointed down.
What muscles can laterally rotate the scapula? What is lateral rotation also known as?
Trapezius (upper/lower) and serratus anterior

Lateral rotation is also known as upward rotation, because the glenoid cavity points up.
What is accomplished by contracting all muscles that attach the scapula to the trunk?
A stable base is formed on which movements of the upper limb can take place.
What is unusual about the insertion of the latissimus dorsi?
The muscle twists on itself as it inserts into the intertubercular groove of the humerus; the lower border becomes the upper border (and vice versa) at insertion.
What muscles (7) attach the humerus to the scapula?
Deltoid, teres major, coracobrachialis, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor
What are the four rotator cuff muscles?
Subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor
How is shoulder motion inhibited by a rotator cuff tear?
The arm can't be lifted above shoulder level, as the deltoid is the only muscle contracting to bring the humerus up.
What two muscles of the deltoid region are innervated by the axillary nerve?
Deltoid and teres minor
What movements are possible at the shoulder?
Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation (lateral and medial)
What is the significance of the scapular anastomosis?
It permits blood to pass from the first part of the subclavian artery to the third part of the axillary artery when either vessel (subclavian or axillary) is blocked between these points.
What nerve and vessel are transmitted through the quadrangular space?
Axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery
What are the boundaries of the quadrangular space (from posterior view)?
Superior: teres minor
Inferior: teres major
Medial: long head of triceps
Lateral: surgical neck of humerus
What vessel is transmitted through the Triangular Space?
Circumflex scapular artery
What muscles make up the anterior compartment of the arm?
Long head of the biceps, short head of the biceps, brachialis, and coracobrachialis
What muscle in the anterior brachium is the most powerful supinator?
Biceps (long head)
What nerve innervates all four muscles of the anterior brachium?
Musculocutaneous nerve
What movements do the muscles of the anterior brachium allow?
Flexion of the shoulder, flexion of the elbow, and supination of the forearm
What muscles compose the posterior compartment of the brachium?
Lateral, long, and medial heads of the triceps
What arm muscle is considered the 'workhorse' of elbow flexion?
The brachialis (can flex the elbow no matter what position it's in)
True or false: Of the three heads of the triceps, one is superficial and two are deep.
False; the medial head is deep, while the lateral and long heads of the triceps are superficial.
What are the six components of the NAV of the arm?
Brachial artery, brachial and basilic veins, median nerve, ulnar nerve, radial nerve, and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve