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51 Cards in this Set

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What ventral rami make up the brachial plexus?
Cervical nerves 5-8 and 1st thoracic nerve
How is the brachial plexus arranged (starting at rami)?
5 rami = 3 trunks = 6 divisions = 3 cords = nerve supply to upper limb
Cords in the brachial plexus are named (lat, med, etc) with reference to their relationship to the _________ artery.
Axillary
What innervates the rhomboids?
Dorsal scapular nerve (root)
What innervates the serratus anterior?
Long thoracic nerve (root)
Roses are red, violets are blue...
What innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus?
Suprascapular nerve (trunk)
What innervates the subclavius?
Subclavius nerve (trunk)
That's an easy one.
What innervates pectoralis major?
The lateral (from lat. cord) and medial (from med. cord) pectoral nerves
What does the musculocutaneous nerve innervate?
Biceps, coracobrachialis, brachialis (anterior brachium)
What innervates pectoralis minor?
The medial pectoral nerve (from medial cord)
True or false: The medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous nerves are sensory nerves.
True
What does the ulnar nerve innervate?
Flexor carpi ulnaris, medial (ulnar) 1/2 of the flexor digitorum profundus, and all hand muscles not innervated by median nerve
Sensory/cutaneous distribution: 1/2 of ring finger and pinky (palmer surface)
What innervates the subscapularis muscle?
Upper subscapular nerve (from post. cord)
What innervates the latissimus dorsi?
Middle subscapular (aka thoracodorsal) nerve (from post. cord)
What innervates the teres major?
Lower subscapular nerve (from post. cord)
What does the axillary nerve innervate?
Deltoid and teres minor
What does the radial nerve innervate?
Motor: triceps, all muscles on the lateral side of the forearm
Sensory: innervates what the medial and ulnar don't - posterior arm and forearm, lower lateral surface of arm, dorsal lateral surface of the hand
What does the median nerve innervate?
Motor: anterior forearm muscles (except flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus); also, thenar eminence of the thumb and first two lumbrical muscles
Sensory: First 3 1/2 fingers (starting at thumb)
Draw the brachial plexus
See class notes
What movements are spinal cord segments C6 and C7 primarily responsible for?
Shoulder extension, wrist flexion and extension
What spinal cord segments are primarily responsible for elbow extension and flexion?
Extension: C7,8
Flexion: C5,6
What spinal cord segments are primarily responsible for radioulnar pronation and supination?
Pronation: C7,8
Supination: C6 (biceps)
What spinal cord segment(s) are primarily responsible for shoulder flexion?
C5
What two cords ultimately form the median nerve?
The heads of the lateral and medial cords
What bones are included in the axial skeleton?
Vertebrae, skull and mandible, ribs and sternum
What bones are included in the appendicular skeleton?
Bones of the limbs/extremities
What are the four regions of the upper limbs?
Girdle (clavicle and scapula), arm (humerus), forearm (radius and ulna), and wrist and hand (carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges)
What is the only bony connection between the upper limb and the trunk?
The clavicle - attaches sternum and scapula (sternoclavicular joint)
What constitutes the anterior surface of the scapula?
Mostly the subscapular fossa (where subscapular muscle lies)
What are the four parts of the posterior surface of the scapula?
1. Spine
2. Acromion (top of shoulder)
3. Upper compartment (supraspinatus fossa)
4. Lower compartment (infraspinatus fossa)

*3&4 are at greater scapular notch and hold corresponding muscles
What makes up the superior border of the scapula?
Scapular notch and coracoid process
What attaches at the medial (vertebral) border of the scapula?
Serratus anterior muscle
What makes up the lateral (axillary) border of the scapula?
Glenoid cavity, infraglenoid tubercle, and supraglenoid tubercle
What muscles attach on the lateral side of the scapula?
The long head of the biceps at the infraglenoid tubercle and the long head of the biceps at the supraglenoid tubercle
In terms of rotation of the scapula, upward and downward refer to the ________, and medial and lateral refer to the _________.
Glenoid cavity; inferior angle
What bones does the humerus articulate with?
The scapula, radius, and ulna
Where are fractures most likely to occur on the humerus?
The surgical neck (inferior to the anatomical neck)
Beginning at the head (and proceding distally), what important landmarks exist on the humerus?
Head, anatomical neck, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, surgical neck, intertubular groove
What are two important features of the humeral shaft?
Deltoid tuberosity (attachment of deltoid muscle) and spiral groove (aka radial - associated with radial nerve)
What are important features of the distal end of the humerus?
1. Trochlea (spool)
2. Coronoid fossa (for coronoid process of ulna)
3. Olecranon fossa (for olecranon process of ulna)
4. Capitulum (attachment for radius)
5. Medial and lateral epicondyles
6. Supracondylar ridges (go from epicondyles to humerus shaft)
What are the condyles at the distal end of the humerus?
The trochlea and capitulum
What are two (general) differences between the radius and the ulna?
1. The radius is bigger and lateral (in anatomic position).
2. The head of the radius is at the proximal end, while the head of the ulna is at the distal end.
What muscle inserts at the radial tuberosity on the radius?
Biceps
What three structures are found at the proximal end of the radius?
Head, neck and radial tuberosity
What two structures are found at the distal end of the radius?
Ulnar notch and styloid process
What five structures are found at the proximal end of the ulna?
Olecranon process, coronoid process, trochlear notch, radial notch, and ulnar tuberosity
Where two structures are located on the distal end of the ulna?
Head and styloid process
Name the carpal bones in the hand/wrist (radial to ulnar - proximal, then distal)
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle
What carpal bone is most frequently fractured? Why is this bone difficult to heal?
The navicular (scaphoid); blood supply to this area is naturally compromised, so it is difficult to rebuild the bone.
What are the three divisions of the metacarpals?
Proximal base, shaft, and distal head
What differentiates the thumb from the rest of the digits on the hand (in terms of the phalanges)?
The thumb lacks a middle phalanx (all other digits have proximal, middle, and distal phalanx)