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72 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a joint?
A place of union or junction between two or more bones of the skeleton
What type of cartilage is found where two bones meet in a joint?
Articular cartilage
What condition results from the wearing down of articular cartilage in joints?
Osteoarthritis
What do the classifications synarthrosis, diarthrosis, and amphiarthrosis mean?
Synarthrosis: immovable or very slightly movable joint
Amphiarthrosis: slightly movable joint
Diarthrosis: Freely movable joint
What types of connections exist between the bones in synarthrosis joints?
1. Synostosis: bones are fused together (bone on bone)
2. Syndesmosis: dense fibrous CT joins bones
3. Synchrondrosis: hyaline cartilage joins bones
What is an example of a joint joined by synostosis? By syndesmosis? By synchondrosis?
Synostosis: Flat bones in skull
Syndesmosis: Interosseous membrane of radius and ulna (between them)
Synchondrosis: Epiphyseal plate
If the intervertebral disks between vertebrae are amphiarthrosis joints, how can the spine have so much flexibility?
When many slightly moveable joints are stacked, it allows for much more movement
What fills the space between bones in amphiarthrosis joints?
Fibrocartilage
What are the four components of a diarthrosis joint?
1. Joint capsule of dense, irregular CT with ligaments
2. Articular cartilage on ends of bones
3. Ends of bones are separated by synovial cavity
4. A disk may divide synovial cavity into two compartments (can be partial or complete)
What are ligaments?
CT bands made of collagenous fibers that join two bony structures (bone to bone); flexible enough to permit motion, but strong enough not to yield to applied forces (usually)
What types of diarthrodial joints allow rotation?
Trochoid (pivot), enarthrodial (ball and socket), seller (saddle) (a little bit)
What are the six types of diarthrodial joints?
Arthrodial (gliding), ginglymus (hinge), trochoid (pivot), condyloid, enarthrodial (ball and socket), and sellar (saddle)
Classify the intercarpal joints.
Diarthrodial; arthrodial (gliding)
Classify the humeroulnar joint.
Diarthrodial; Ginglymus (hinge)
Classify the proximal radioulnar joint.
Diarthrodial; Trochoid (pivot)
Classify the metacarpophalangeal joints.
Diarthrodial; condyloid
Classify the glenohumeral joint.
Diarthrodial; enarthrodial (ball and socket)
Classify the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
Diarthrodial; sellar (saddle)
What are bursae and how are they named?
Clefts in CT between muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones that are named according to their location.
What do bursae do?
Facilitate gliding of muscles of tendons over bony or ligamentous prominences.
What are the two upper limb joints associated with the clavicle?
Sternoclavicular joint and acromioclavicular joint
What joint consists of the articulation of the head of the humerus with the glenoid fossa of the scapula?
Glenohumeral joint
What is the anatomical name for the elbow joint?
Elbow proper
What joint is composed of the radial head and the radial notch of the ulna?
Proximal radioulnar joint
What joint allows the articulation of the shafts of the radius and ulna?
Middle radioulnar joint
What are the components of the distal radioulnar joint?
Head of the ulna and ulnar notch of the radius
What are the components of the radiocarpal joint?
Distal radius and navicular, lunate and triquetrum
What type of joint makes up the intercarpal joints?
Gliding, except the midcarpal joint, which is a hinge
What is the significance of the midcarpal joint being a hinge joint?
It facilitates flexion and extension at the wrist.
What type of joint makes up the carpometacarpal joints?
Joints between the carpal bones and the medial four metacarpals are gliding.
The thumb has a saddle joint formed by the 1st metacarpal and trapezium that permits flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.
What type of joints are the intermetacarpal joints?
Gliding
What are components of the metacarpophalangeal joints? What type of joint is this?
Components: Heads of the metacarpals and proximal ends of the first phalanges

Type: condyloid (convex on concave)
What are the components of the interphalangeal joints? What type of joint is this?
Components: 1st and 2nd phalanges of all digits; 2nd and 3rd phalanges of all digits except the thumb

Type: hinge
What joint is made up of a complete articular disk, the sternal end of the clavicle, and the manubrium of the sternum?
The sternoclavicular joint
What joint is the only point where the shoulder girdle articulates with the trunk?
Sternoclavicular joint
What four ligaments are formed from a thickening of the capsule in the sternoclavicular joint?
Anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments, costoclavicular ligament (1st costal cartilage to clavicle), and interclavicular ligament (clavicle to clavicle)
What is the significance of the articular disk in the sternoclavicular joint?
It makes the double gliding joint more like a ball and socket joint, permitting a limited amount of movement in nearly every direction.
What are the components of the acromioclavicular joint?
An incomplete disk, the lateral end of the clavicle, and the acromion of the scapula
What two ligaments are found in the acromioclavicular joint?
Acromioclavicular ligaments (superior and inferior) and the coracoclavicular ligaments (conoid and trapezoid)
Which of the two types of ligaments in the acromioclavicular joint are found extrinsic to the joint?
The conoid and trapezoid coracoclavicular ligaments
What does it mean when ligaments are found extrinsic to the joint?
The ligaments are associated with the joint, but they don't cross the two articulating bones.
What types of motion occur at the acromioclavicular joint?
Gliding, limited scapular rotation of the clavicle; this joint works with the sternoclavicular joint when the scapula moves
What are the components of the glenohumeral joint?
Head of the humerus, glenoid fossa of the scapula, and glenoid labrum
What does the glenoid labrum do in the glenohumeral joint?
It circles the glenoid and makes the 'socket' a bit bigger to fit the 'ball,' the head of the humerus
What joint is easily dislocated, usually inferiorly and anteriorly?
The glenohumeral joint
What five ligaments are associated with the glenohumeral joint?
Coracohumeral ligament, glenohumeral ligaments (inferior, middle, superior), and coracoacromial ligament
Which ligament associated with the glenohumeral joint is located extrinsic to the joint?
The coracoacromial ligament, which connects two landmarks on the scapula and has no apparent function
What types of motion is permited at the glenohumeral joint?
Circumduction, flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation
What joint is considered the most mobile joint in the body (and also the most unstable)?
The glenohumeral joint
What are the components of the elbow proper?
1. Humerus (trochlea and capitulum)
2. Ulna (with trochlea) and radius (with capitulum)
What two ligaments are associated with the elbow proper?
1. Radial collateral ligament (lateral)
2. Ulnar collateral ligament (medial)
What is the purpose of the ulnar and radial collateral joints?
Both stabilize the joint - the ulnar collateral prevents abduction, and the radial collateral prevents adduction at the elbow.
What types of action are permitted at the elbow proper?
Flexion and extension
What is the carrying angle?
An angle of deviation of the forearm from continued longitudinal (?) progress (going straight down).
The angle is usually about 15 degrees in men and a couple degrees more in women. It 'curves' the arms around the hips.
What type of joint is the proximal radioulnar joint?
Pivot (trochoid)
The capsule of the proximal radioulnar joint is continuous with the capsule of the ___________.
Elbow proper
What ligament is associated with the proximal radioulnar joint?
Annular ligament - wraps around radial neck and holds head in position
What ligament holds the radius in position for pivoting?
The annular ligament
What types of motion are permitted at the proximal radioulnar joint?
Pronation and supination
What is the only syndesmosis joint in the arm?
Middle radioulnar joint (connects the shafts of the radius and ulna)
What ligament is important in the middle radioulnar joint?
Interosseous membrane
What ligament is associated with the distal radioulnar joint?
A capsule with a partial articular disk
What motion is possible at the distal radioulnar joint?
Pronation and supination
What types of motion are permitted at the radiocarpal joint (wrist)?
Flexion, extension, abduction (radial deviation), adduction (ulnar deviation)
What four ligaments are made from a thickening of the capsule on the radiocarpal joint?
Palmar and dorsal radiocarpal ligaments and radial and ulnar collateral ligaments
In what plane does thumb extension and flexion occur?
Frontal plane
In what plane does thumb abduction and adduction occur?
Saggital plane
What are the ligaments associated with the metacarpophalangeal joints?
Collateral ligaments (cross the joint)
What types of action are permitted at the metacarpophalangeal joints?
Flexion, extension, abduction and adduction (middle finger is the midline)
How many interphalangeal joints are present on individual digits?
There are 2 IP joints on all digits except the thumb, which has one.
What is the significance of the collateral ligaments at the IP joints?
When the fingers are flexed, the ligaments tighten and prevent abduction and adduction at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints.
What type of motion is permitted at the interphalangeal joints?
Flexion and extension