Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Independent Variable
X= predictor= Exposure= independent variable
Dependent Variable
Y= outcome= Disease= response variable= dependent variable
Nominal Variable
Level of measurement scale.
Data by name alone, no consideration of magnitude or order. Ex- 1= Females 2= Males. Also dichotomous or binomial. Also called categorical

Can only be discrete variables
Ordinal Variable
Ordered catagorical variables.
Ordered or ranked categories but not necessarily in magnitude. Ex- 1= Freshman, 2= Sophomores

Can be discrete or continuous
Continuous Variable
May take any value. Ex- blood pressure, cholesterol
Discrete Variables
Data with assigned order and magnitude but restricted to whole numbers.

Nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio variables can be discrete
Hierarchy of Variables
A variable can always be analyzed as if it were of a type further down the hierarchy, but not visa versa.

ratio>> interval >> ordinal >> nominal
Measures of Central Tendency
1) Mean
2) Median
3) Mode
Measures of Spread
1) Range
2) Variance
3) Standard Deviation
Average, unique, simple, includes all numbers, affected by extremes
Middle pt of data pts. Unique, simple NOT affected by extreme values.
Most appeared number. Can have none or more than one.
Max- Min. Simple,sensitive to extreme values
Variance= SD^2
Uses all data points, always positive. Gives idea of data variability.
Standard Deviation
Is the average deviation of the mean from the observations themselves.

Uses all data points, original units of data.
Interval Variable
Based on variable having intervals of equal length or distance, like inches on a ruler.

Does not have an absolute zero point like ratio scale so total absence of attribute cannot be calibrated.

Can be discrete or continuous
Ex- Temperature and IQ
Ratio Variable
Based on variable having intervals of equal length or distance, like inches on a ruler.

Does have an absolute zero point.

Can be discrete or continous

Ex- No. of cigarettes smoked per day