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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
external validity
the ability to generalize the study results.
also called extrapolation.
internal validity
the ability to reach the correct conclusion for those actually studied.
the extent to which the results of a study can be attributed to the interventions employed rather than to flaws in the research design.
performance bias
care provided to one group differs from that provided to another
selection bias
groups of exposed and unexposed subjects differ systematically in a way which affects the outcome.
recall bias
one group may be more likely to recall certain events.
hindsight bias
knowledge that an event has occurred leads to an inflated estimate of the true probability of that event.
Hawthorn effect
Observation Bias
subjects may behave differently when they know they are being observed.
ecological fallacy
erroneous inference that population level association holds true at the individual level.
cross-sectional study
the relationship between an exposure and an outcome is compared in a defined population at one point in time.
case-control study
persons with a particular outcome (cases) are compared to similar persons without outcome (controls) with respect to past exposures.
select on the basis of outcome (good for rare diseases.)
inherently retrospective (looking backward for risk factors).
cohort study
a group of persons with a particular exposure and a similar group without the exposure are followed in time and compared regarding the occurrence of an outcome(s) of interest.
select on the basis of exposure (good for rare exposures).
descriptive study
designed only to describe the distribution of variables without regard to causal or other hypotheses.
hypothesis generating.
no control group.
analytic study
designed to examine associations, hypothesized causal relationships.
has control group.