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41 Cards in this Set

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A small patch of ectodermal tissue on the dorsal surface of the vertebrate embryo, from which the neural groove, the neural tube, and, ultimately, the mature nervous system develop.
Neural Plate
(Page 215)
The middle of the three cell layers in the developing embryo.
Mesoderm Layer
(Page 216)
Capable of developing into any type of mature body cell.
Totipotent
(Page 216)
Capable of developing into a limited number of types of mature body cell.
Multipotent
(Page 216)
Developing cells that have the capacity for self-renewal and the potential to develop into various types of mature cells.
Stem Cells
(Page 216)
The tube that is formed in the vertebrate embryo when the edges of the neural groove fuse and that develops into the central nervous system.
Neural Tube
(Page 216)
The rapid increase in the number of neurons that follows the formation of the neural tube.
Neural Proliferation
(Page 217)
The region adjacent to the ventricle in the developing neural tube; the zone where neural proliferation occurs.
Ventricular Zone
(Page 217)
The movement of cells from their site of creation in the ventricular zone of the neural tube to their ultimate location in the mature nervous system.
Migration
(Page 217)
Movement of cells in the developing neural tube from the ventricular zone in a straight line outwards towards the tube's outer wall.
Radial Migration
(Page 217)
Movement of cells in the developing neural tube in a direction parallel to the tubes walls.
Tangential Migration
(Page 217)
One of two major modes of neural migration in which an extension grows out from the undeveloped neuron and draws the cell body up into it
Somal Translocation
(Page 217)
One of two major modes of neural migration during development, by which imature neurons move out from the central canal along the radial glial cells.
Glia-Mediated Migration
(Page 217)
Glial cells that exist in the neural tube only during the period of neural migration, and that form a network along which radial migration occurs.
Radial Glial Cells
(Page 217)
The pattern of cortical development in which orderly waves of tangential migrations progress systematically from deeper to more superficial layers.
Inside-Out Pattern
(Page 217)
The structure that is formed by cells breaking off from the neural groove during the formation of the neural tube and that develops into the peripheral nervous system.
Neural Crest
(Page 217)
The alignment of cells within different areas of the embryo during development to form various structures.
Aggregation
(Page 218)
Molecules on the surface of cells that have the ability to recognize specific molecules on the surface of other cells and bind to them.
Cell-Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
(Page 218)
Amoeba-like structure at the tip of each growing axon or dendrite that guides growth to the appropriate target.
Growth Cone
(Page 219)
Retinal neurons whose axons leave the eyeball and form the optic nerve.
Retinal Ganglion Cells
(Page 219)
The main destination of retinal ganglion cells in lower vertebrates.
Optic Tectum
(Page 219)
The hypothesis that growing axons are attracted to the correct targets by different chemicals released by the target sites.
Chemoaffinity Hypothesis
(Page 219)
The first growth cones to travel along a particular route in the developing nervous system.
Pioneer Growth Cones
(Page 220)
The tendency of developing axons to grow along the paths established by preceding axons.
Fasciculation
(Page 220)
The hypothesis that axonal growth is guided by the relative position of the cell bodies on intersecting gradients, rather than by point-to-point coding of neural connections.
Topographic Gradient Hypothesis
(Page 220)
The formation of new synapses.
Synaptogenesis
(Page 220)
Chemicals that are supplied to developing neurons by their targets and that promote their survival.
Neurotrophins
(Page 221)
A neurotrophin that attracts the growing axons of the sympathetic nervous system and promotes their survival.
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)
(Page 221)
Passive cell death, which is characterized by inflammation.
Necrosis
(Page 221)
Cell death that is actively induced by genetic programs; programmed cell death.
Apoptosis
(Page 221)
The tendency to continue making a formerly correct response that is currently incorrect.
Perseveration
(Page 224)
Particular experiences that are necessary for a particular genetic program to be manifested.
Permissive Experiences
(Page 225)
Particular experiences that influence the direction of a genetic program of development.
Instructive Experiences
(Page 225)
A period during development in which a particular experience must occur for it to influence the course of subsequent development.
Critical Period
(Page 225)
The period during the development of a particular trait, usually early in life, when a particular experience is likely to change the course of that development.
Sensitive Period
(Page 225)
The growth of new neurons.
Neurogenesis
(Page 227)
A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by (1) a reduced ability to interpret the emotions and intentions of others, (2) a reduced capacity for social interaction and communication, and (3) a preoccupation with single subject or activity.
Autism
(Page 229)
Intellectually handicapped individuals who nevertheless display amazing and specific cognitive or artistic abilities; savant abilities are sometimes associated with autism.
Savants
(Page 230)
A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, accompanied by preserved language and social skills.
Williams Syndrome
(Page 232)
The cortex of the inferior frontal lobes, adjacent to the orbits, which receives olfactory input from the thalamus.
Orbitofrontal Cortex
(Page 233)
The large gyrus of the temporal lobe adjacent to the lateral fissure; the location of the auditory cortex.
Superior Temporal Gyrus
(Page 234)