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### 37 Cards in this Set

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 Biomechanics -Response of biological systems to mechanical forces -Application of mechanical laws to living systems Statics Equilibrium of bodies at rest or moving with a constant velocity Dynamics Bodies in motion, forces that act to produce motion -Kinematics and Kinetics Kinematics Geometry of motion w/o consideration of forces Kinetics Force analysis of bodies in motion Relationship between forces acting on a system Forces Mechanical Disturbance or Load -Produce, halt or change direction of motion -Magnitude and Direction - Vectors -F=ma Magnitude Amount of Force applied Orientation Angular position of the line Line of application angle with body that force is acting on Moment of Force Magnitude of force x perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation Torque Force x Perpendicular distance to center of rotation Produces rotation Moment Arm Shortest distance between axis of rotation and force Torque = Force x Moment Arm -Rotary equivalent of force -Force produced by a muscle Mass Amount of matter composing an object Weight Force acting on an object due to gravity -Depends on mass of object and strength of gravitational pull Center of Gravity -Rigid body behaves as if its entire mass were acting at its COG -Point at which total mass of body is considered to be concentrated -Depends on body's shape and mass distribution -Point of Application of force due to gravity -Located normally around S2 Line of Gravity Line extending from COG vertically downward Vector representation of the weight of a segment Base of Support Outline on ground encompassing all parts of the patient which touch the ground -To be stable the COG must fall in the BOS To incrase stability Increase BOS and Lower COG Friction Tangential force acting between two bodies in contact which opposes motion First Class Levers Fulcrum always located between Effort and Resistance -C1 Second Class Levers Effort Arm is always greater than Resistance Arm -1st MTP Standing Third Class Levers Resistance Arm is always greater than Effort Arm -Biceps Curl Mechanical Advantage -Efficiency of a lever -Effectiveness of Effort compared to Resistance -EA/RA Law of Inertia A body at rest remains at rest, and a body in motion remains in uniform linear motion, unless acted upon by an outside force Inertia Resistance to initiation or change of motion Law of Acceleration -Body acted on by a force will accelerate in direction of force in proportion to its mass Law of Reaction -For every action there is a reaction, equal in magnitude but opposite in direction Coplanar 2 or more forces acting in the same plane Concurrent 2 or more forces acting on the same point Collinear 2 or more forces acting along the same line Parallel Forces Tensile Forces -Normal force perpendicular and directed away from surface Compressive Forces -Normal forces perpendicular and directed towards the surface *Forces that are parallel, coplanar but have different point of application Coplanar Forces Resultant force is algebraic sum of vectors Parallel Forces/Force Couples 2 parallel forces equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, but not in same straight line -Cause rotation of parts around thier anatomical axis Concurrent Forces 2 forces with same point of application but different direction of action lines -Coplanar, concurrent, not collinear Rectangular Components Muscle force applied to bone (via tendon) -When muscles contract to produce movement, some force is used for rotation and some is used for compression Translatory Component Portion of force applied parallel to lever Pazss through joint axis, does not produce torque Tangential component of force