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44 Cards in this Set

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Chromosoem
A coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division
DNA
hereditary material that controls all the activities of a cell, contains the information to make a new cell, and provides instructions for making proteins
Nucleotide
a subunit of DNA consisting of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four nitrogenous bases
Deoxyribose
A sugar that is a component of DNA
Phosphate
A component of DNA
Nitrogeneous Bases
four bases found in nucleic acids and are subunits of DNA
Adenine
One of the four bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; adenine pairs with thmine
Thymine
One of the four bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; thymin pairs with Adenine
Guanine
one of the four bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; guanine pairs with cytosine
Cytosine
One of the four bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; cytosine pairs with guanine
Erwin Chargraff
Biochemist Gargraff found that the amount of adenine in DNA always equals the same amount of thymine and the same for guanine and cytosine
Rosalind Franklin
Franklin was able to create images of DNA molecules using X-ray diffraction
James Watson
Built a model of DNA and realized that it resembled a double helix. He used this model to predict how DNA is copied.
Franklin Crick
Built a model of DNA and realized that it resembled a double helix. He used this model to predict how DNA is copied.
Double Helix
The coiled structure of double-stranded DNA in which strands linked by hydrogen bonds form a spiral configuration, with the two strands oriented in opposite directions
Template
The original molecule in DNA during replication
Carriers
An individual that carries one gene for a particular recessive trait. A carrier does not express the trait but, when mated with another carrier, can produce offspring that do
Pedigree
A chart of an individual's ancestors used in human genetics to analyze Mendelian inheritance of certain traits, especially of familiar disease.
Selective Breeding
The intentional mating of two animals in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait
Genetic Engineering
Scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to creat bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human protein
Human Genome Project
An international research effort to map and identify the role of all genes in the human genome
DNA Fingerprinting
A method used to identify multilocus DNA banding patterns that are specific to an individual by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to molecular probes and various anlytical techniques such as Souther blot analysis.
Complementary Base Pairing
A always goes with T as C always goes with G
Incomplete Dominance
A heterozygous condition in which both alleles at a gene are partially expressed often producing and intermediate phenotype
Polygenic Inheritance
When one gene effects many traits
Multiple Alleles
Different forms of the same trait
Codon
A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides constituting the genetic code that determines the insertion of a specific amino acid in a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis or the signal to stop protein synthesis.
mRNA
RNA, synthesized from a DNA template during transcription, that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. Also called messenger RNA.
Ribosome
A minute round particle composed of RNA and protein that is found in the cytoplasm of living cells and serves as the site of assembly for polypeptides encoded by messenger RNA.
Amino Acid
Any of various organic acids containing both an amino group and a carboxyl group, especially any of the 20 or more compounds that link together to form proteins.
Protein
Any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compous that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of poymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and leumes;"a diet high in protein"
Mutation
The process by which such a change occurs in a chromosome, either through an alteration in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA coding for a gene or through a chane in the physical arrangement of a chromosome
Deletion
The loss, as through mutation, of one or more nucleotides from a chromosome
Insertion
The addition, as by mutation, of one or more nucleotides to a chromosome
Substitution
When one nucleotide is substituted for another
Repair Enzymes
Enzymes that come to repair mistakes in DNA
Mutages
An agent, such as a chemical, ultraviolet light, or a radioactive element, that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism
Protein
Any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compous that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of poymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and leumes;"a diet high in protein"
Mutation
The process by which such a change occurs in a chromosome, either through an alteration in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA coding for a gene or through a chane in the physical arrangement of a chromosome
Deletion
The loss, as through mutation, of one or more nucleotides from a chromosome
Insertion
The addition, as by mutation, of one or more nucleotides to a chromosome
Substitution
When one nucleotide is substituted for another
Repair Enzymes
Enzymes that come to repair mistakes in DNA
Mutages
An agent, such as a chemical, ultraviolet light, or a radioactive element, that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism