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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
transformation
a type of transfer of genetic material from one cell to another cell or from one organism to another organism
bacteriophage
viruses that infect bacteria. They are also called phages.
virulent
a strain of bacteria that causes disease.
nucleotide
consists of three parts: a five carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
deoxyribose
the five carbon sugar in a DNA nucleotide
nitrogenous base
a base in DNA containing nitrogen and carbon
purine
a nitrogenous base with two rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms.

ex) adenine and guanine
pyrmidines
a nitrogenous base with a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms.

ex) cytosine, thynine
complementary base pair
a pair of nitrogenous bases connect to each other by hydrogen bonds

ex) adenine, thynine, cytosine, guanine
nitrogenous base
a base in DNA containing nitrogen and carbon atoms
base sequence
the order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA
replication fork
is a y-shaped region that results when the two strands of DNA separate
helicase
is an enzyme that separates the strands of DNA during replication
semi-conservative replication
produces a new DNA molecule with one original strand and one new strand
DNA polymerase
enzymes that add complementary nucleotides; found floating inside the nucleus
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a natural polymer that is found in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
transcription
the process of forming nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as the template
translation
the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
messenger RNA (mRNA)
a single stranded RNA molecule that carries the instructions from a gene to make a protein. In eukaryotic cells, mRNA carries the genetic message from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytosol
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
part of the structure of ribosomes.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein. made of nucleotides linked together.
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of RNA by using a DNA strand as a template.
promoter
is a specific nucleotide sequence of DNA where RNA polymerase binds and initiates transcription. after RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, the DNA strands unwind and separate.
termination signal
a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene.
genetic code
the term for the rules that relate how a sequence of nitrogenous bases in nucleotides corresponds to a particular amino acid
codon
a three-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal
anticodon
three nucleotides on the RNA that are complementary to the sequence of a codon in mRNA