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27 Cards in this Set

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Diffusion
The net (or overall) movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient.

An essential way in which substances move into, through and out of cells.
Passive Transport
(Facilitated Diffusion)
A concentration gradient drives the diffusion of a solute across a cell membrane, with the assistance of a transport protein. The protein does not require energy to assist the solute's movement; thus, passive transport is also called facilitated diffusion
Active Transport
A transport protein uses energy to pump a solute against its gradient across a cell membrane. Energy, often in the form the form of a phosphate-group transfer from ATP, changes the shape of the transporter. The change causes the transporter to release the solute to the other side of the membrane
Exocytosis
A vesicle moves to the cell surface, and the protein-studded lipid bilayer of its membrane fuses with the plasma membrane. As the exocytic vesicle loses its identity, its contents are released to the surroundings.
Endocytosis
There are three pathways, but they all take up substances near the cell's surface. A small patch of plasma membrane balloons inward, and then it pinches off after sinking farther into the cytoplasm. The membrane patch becomes the outer boundary of an endocytic vesicle, which delivers its contents to an organelle or stores them in a cytoplasmic region.
Phagocytosis
"cell eating"

An endocytic pathway. Amoebas engulf microorganisms, cellular debris, or other particles. In animals, macrophages and other phagocytic white blood cells engulf and digest pathogenic viruses and bacteria, cancerous body cells and other threats
Osmosis
Water molecules diffuse in response to their own concentration gradient.
Hypotonic
When solute concnetrations differ, the fluid with the lower concentration of solutes
Hypertonic
Fluid with the higher concentration
Isotonic
Fluids that have the same solute concentration
Crenation
Contraction of a cell after exposure to a hypertonic solution, due to the loss of water through osmosis.
Turgor Pressure
(Hydrostatic Pressure)
Counter osmosis. The pressure that a volume of fluid exerts against a cell wall, membrane, tube or any other structure that holds it.
Hemolysis
The breaking open of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the release of their contents (hemoglobin) into surrounding fluid (e.g., blood plasma). Hemolysis may occur in vivo or in vitro (inside or outside the body).
Plasmolysis
Process in animal cells where the plasma membrane engulfs the object cell wall due to the loss of water through osmosis.
Pinocytosis
"cell-drinking"

a form of endocytosis in which small particles are brought into the cell suspended within small vesicles which subsequently fuse with lysosomes to hydrolyze, or to break down, the particles. This process requires a lot energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, the chemical compound used as energy in the majority of cells.
Given concentrations, predict the direction of movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane
Tonicity dictates the direction of water movement across membranes: Water diffuses from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution
Hyoptonic
Solution with the lower concentration
Hypertonic
Solution with the higher concentration
Isotonic
Solutions that have the same concentrations
Predict whether cells will swell of shrink under various osmotic conditions
If the fluid outside the cell is hypertonic water will follow its gradient and cross the membrane to the hypertonic side and the volume of the cell will decrease as water diffuses out of it. If the outside fluid is very hypotonic, the volume of the cell will increase as water diffuses into it.
Energy
The capacity to do work, it can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy does not appear from nowhere and it does not vanish into anything
Second Law Of Thermodynamics
Entropy increases spontaneously
Entropy
Measure of how much the energy of a particular system has been dispersed. When we say that energy disperses, we mean that a system tends to change toward a state of maximum entropy.
Reaction
The chemical change process by which chemical bonds break, form or which.
Reactamts
Molecels that entera reaction
Products
Molecules that remain at the reaction's end