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24 Cards in this Set

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First law of thermodynamics
total energy in the universe is constant (energy is neither created nor destroyed)
second law
total usuable energy in a system decreases as energy conversions take place (given off as heat). This increases entropy (randomness, disorder)
free energy
amount of energy available to break and reform bonds
Delta G
-=exergonic reaction, energy releasing
coupled reaction
endergonic reactions can occur when coupled to series or pathways of reactions that are exergonic ("domino effect")
active sites on enzymes
a place or area on a protein that is determined by its tertiary structure
substrates
bind to specific active site of a specific protein. (after a substrate binds it shifts tertiary strucutre which may enhance of inhibit further bonding. known as induced fit
How do enzymes lower activation energy?
-increase local concentration of molecules
-position molecules in relation to each other so they can bond
competitive inhibition
a molecule other than the usual substrate binds in the active site and blocks normal product formation
allosteric effects
molecules bind on enzyme somewhere other than the active site but still affect aite by altering tertiary structure
-non-competitive inhibition
cofactors
molecules that assit in enzyme function
metal ions
can pull electrons away from substrate molecules because of their charge
coenzymes
cofactors that are non-protein organic molecules. often operate to transfer electrons between molecules, therefore are redox pairs
multienzyme complexes
increase efficiency of catalytic events by increasing concentration of reactants, decreasing competeing reactions, operating as a unit
ATP structure
-one nitrogen base-adenine
-one sugar-ribose
-one-three phosphate group
ATP hydrolysis
-liberates 7 Kcal/bond
-drives endergonic reactions
-phosphorylates-add a phosphate functional group
-can cause couple reactions
glycolysis
sugar splitting, occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells
-energy obtained from breaking the C-H bonds of glucose
Glycolysis reaction
6 carbons (glucose) yields 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3 carbons)
-net yield= 2 ATP, 2 NADH
Kreb's cycle
-occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
-1 ATP per turn
electron transport chain
electrons are passed from glucose to oxygen in a series of steps with electrons "falling", releasing stored energy at each step.
-occurs in the inner inner mitochondrial membrane, the cristae
cellular respiration of fats
in the matrix lipids either become
1. glycerol or fatty acid
2. broken down into fatty acids (chains)->2 carbon pieces (acetyl groups) -> acetyl CoA
Fermentation
-anaerobic respiration
-conversion of pyruvic acid to either ethanol or lactic acid
-small amount of ATP made
chloroplasts
the only pigment that directly converts light energy to chemical energy by boosting electrons to higher energy levels
CAM
stomates stay closed during the day, but open at night