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74 Cards in this Set

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How many sodium come in? How many potassium go out?
3 Na out of the cell for every 2 potassiums pumped in
synaptic cleft
a narrow space that separates to cells
presynaptic cell
the neuorn whose axon transmits action potentials to the synapse
postsynaptic cell
other side of the synapse
afferent pathway
in, stimulatory
motor (efferent) pathway
out, response
sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla
flight or fight responses (stimulatory in general), stimulate their effector organs through the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine
parasympathetic nervous system
antagonistic to sympathetic. releases ACh as a neurotransmitter
G proteins
help mediate events that involve overlapping functions
neurotransmitters
proteins released by neurons into synapses
neurohormones
specialized neurons release chemicals into bloodstream
autocrine secretions
chemicals that are released and operate within an organ
paracrine secretions
chemicals are produced in one area and act on another area of the SAME organ
hormones that do not enter cell
hydrophilic, polar molecules
1st messenger
protein that binds to surface cell. peptides, glycoproteins, hormones
2nd messenger
molecules that trigger reactions inside the cell. organic molecules and cyclic AMP
The Immune system
*
human lymphatic system
system of passive transport that articulates with the circulatory system
lymph
plasma lost from the circulatory system plus dead and/or unanchored cells from body tissues
lymph nodes
regions of fine tissue mesh that filter large fragments and dead cells from lymph (acts like a trap or sink)
spleen
filtration of lymph, storage and destruction of RBC's, recycling of hemoglobin
Thymus
T-cell differentiation
Helper T cell
commander of the immune response; detects infection and sounds the alarm, initiating both T-cell and B-cell responses
Inducer T Cell
Not involved in the immediate response to infection; mediates the maturation of other T cells in the thymus
cytotoxic T cell
detects and kills infected body cells; recruited by helper T cells
Suppressor T cell
dampens the activity of T and B cells, scaling back the defense after the infection has been checked
B cell
precursor of plasma cell; specialized to recognize specific foreign antigens
plasma cell
produces antibodies directed against specific foreign antigens
mast cell
initiator of the inflammatory response
monocyte
precursor of macrophage
macrophage
the body's first cellular line of defense; also serves as antigen-presenting cell to B and T cells. engulfs foreign cells by phagocytosis, kills one at a time
natural killer cells
kill cells of the body infected by viruses by making a hole in their cell membranes. water rushes in and cell bursts
protein complement systems
about 20 proteins floating around bloodstream. when a foreign invader is encountered they aggregate in invader's membrane forming a pore where water rushes in, killing the cell
inflammatory response
a localized, non-specific response
infected, injured cells cause...
cause the release of histamine and prostaglandins. causes fialation of blood vessels and blood flows into area (swelling)
temperature response
macrophages encounter invaders and release interlukin-1 which is carried to brain. this and other pyrogens (toxins) stimulate neurons in hypothalmus and temperature elevates
antigen
any molecule that causes an immune response (usually a foreign invader)
antigenic determinant site
different sites on an antigen. each site may cause a different immune response
antibodies
proteins produced by white blood cells (lymphocytes) in response to an antigen
humoral immunity
when antibody proteins are released into the bloodstream
cell-mediated immunity
lymphosytes (WBC) directly attack other cells (non-specific immunity)
acquired immunity
immunity gained from being exposed to a disease producing agent (pathogen)
passive immunity
immunity gained from mother's antibodies passed across placenta
antibodies are proteins with
quaternary structure (4 polypeptide chains)
amine ends of antibodies
N-terminus, antigen binding sites
immunoglobulins
globular proteins, antibodies are
The Humoral Response
*
B-cells (b lymphocytes
make antibodies (proteins). are on the surface of the b-cells
small (birgin) b-cells
encounter antigen specific to their binding site and bind to it. They begin growing
b-cells undergo division and each b-cell divides into
1 plasma cell (secretes antibody protein into bloodstream to "lock up" antigen) and 1 memory cell (stored)
cross-linking
at least 2 antibody molecules next to each other must each have both sites filled with antigen to get the reaction
clonal selection
interaction of an antigen with a recptor protein on a lymphocyte surface stimulates the rapid cell division of that lymphocyte
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
genes that code for proteins on the surface of t-cells
MCH proteins
"recognize" one's own body cells or self
MHCI proteins
have CD8 glycoproteins or correcptors, on all cells
MHCII proteins
have CD4 correceptors, found only on macrophages, B cells, and a subtype of T cells
What do MCHI/II cells do when an antigen comes
I-activates cytotoxic t-cells
II-activates t-helper cells
white blood cells (t-lymphocytes) are either
cytotoxic cells or t-helper cells
cytotoxic cells
bind to infected cells with MHCI proteins and kills them by perforation
t-helper cells
bind to infected cells with MHCII proteins and trigger a variety of responses
antigen shifting
viruses and bacteria mutate so their proteins always shift and may not be recognized
allergic reaction
hypersensitivity (overreaction). production of excess IgE antibodies causes attachment of mast cells which secrete histamines which attract macrophates and other lymphocytes (non-specific response)
Animals maintain a stable internal enviornment (homeostasis) by regulating...
1. salt, ion, water balance through osmosis
2. removal of water and other solutes by excretion
3. temperature
osmolality and osmotic balance
regulation of body fluids
4 kidney functions
reabsorption, secretion, concentration, and excretion
filtration
blood pressure pushes water, salts, urea, protein, etc. from glomerular capillaries (bloodstream) into Bowman's capsule (nephron)
membrane between the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule acts as...
a filter, keeping out large molecules
reabsorption
molecules that enter the filtrate can be returned to bloodstream by reabosrption from tubules of nephron=surrounding blood vessels
reabsorption involves
1. active transport
secretion
reverse of reabsorption. drugs from capillaries and may be eliminated in urine
excretion
filtrate is concentrated as it travels through the nephron to optimize water retention
ADH
during dehydration, increase water permeability in collecting ducts allowing water to be returned to the blood
aldosterone
secreted by adrenal cortex. causes Na+ to be reabsorbed (not excreted). helps maintain blood volume and pressure
ANF
antagonistic to aldosterone. removes Na+, Cl- from blood and decrease in water in blood in response to high blood pressure