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18 Cards in this Set

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Distinguish between the appendicular skeleton and the axial skeleton.
axial skeleton: the skull and the bones that support it; appendicular skeleton: bones associated with the appendages
Compare and contrast the four main kinds of movable joints and provide an example of each.
ball-and-socket joints: movement in all directions, hips and shoulders; pivot joints: allow twisting around each other, between radius and ulna; hinge joints: back-and-forth movement, elbows, knees, fingers, toes; gliding joints: allow bones to slide past each other, wrists
How is compact bone structurally different from spongy bone?
Compact bone is made up of osteon systems. Spongy bone contains holes.
Identify and interpret the functions of the skeletal system.
The skeletal system provides a framework for the tissues of the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals. It also protects internal organs and allows for efficient body movement.
Why would it be impossible for bones to grow from within?
The structure of compact bone would not allow growth from the inside.
Outline the steps involved in bone formation and growth—from cartilage to the cessation of bone growth.
(1) embryo skeleton is cartilage; (2) bone begins to replace cartilage- calcium salts and other ions are deposited and harden to form bone; (3) bones continue to grow in length from the ends, and in diameter from the outer surface until around age 20
one of two main parts of the human skeleton, includes the skull and the bones that support it, such as the vertebral column, ribs, and sternum.
axial skeleton
one of two main parts of the human skeleton, includes the bones of the arms and legs and associated structures, such as the shoulders and hip bones.
appendicular skeleton
point where two or more bones meet; can be fixed or facilitate movement of bones in relation to one another.
joint
tough band of connective tissue that attaches one bone to another
ligament
fluid-filled sac located between the bones that absorb shock and keep bones from rubbing against each other.
bursa
thick bands of connective tissue that attach muscles to bones.
tendon
layer of protective hard bone tissue surrounding every bone; composed of repeating units of osteon systems.
compact bone
newly formed bone cells
osteocytes
soft bone containing many holes and spaces surrounded by a layer of more dense compact bone.
spongy bone
potential bone-forming cells that secrete collagen in which minerals in the bloodstream can be deposited
osteoblast
marrow found in the humerus, femur, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and pelvis that produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and cell fragments involved in blood clotting
red marrow
marrow composed of stored fats found in many bones.
yellow marrow