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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the three parts of the body which make up the first line of defence against pathogens.
The skin, the respiratory system and the eyes.
What is the body's second line of defence against pathogens?
Non-specific White Blood Cells.
Explain briefly what lymphocytes do.
White blood cells called lymphocytes attack specific microbes. They release antibodies to attack and destroy the pathogen.
Name four types of pathogen.
Bacteria, protozoa, viruses and fungus.
What's the difference between transmission of microbes by direct contact and by indirect contact?
Direct contact - passed directly from one organism to another without any form of carrier.
Indirect contact - passed from one organism to another by a carrier.
Explain the difference between horizontal and vertical transmission of disease.
Vertical - from mother to baby.
Horizontal - from any individual to another.
Give an example of a disease that's spread by something non-living. How is it spread?
Typhoid is spread through water or food.
What are typical sings of TB? How is TB spread?
Coughing, fatigue, weight loss and lack of appetite, fever and night sweats are typical sings. It is spread through droplet infection.
Explain briefly why TB in the UK has become more common despite the old immunisation programme.
Movement of people from countries where TB is more common and the increase in numbers of people infected with HIV.
Who now gets vaccinated against TB in the new programme?
Only people in high risk areas.
Give one reason why TB might become more of a problem in the future.
The disease may become resistant to antibiotics and other drugs used to prevent it.
Why does it cost so much to develop new drugs?
It takes a long time and lots of potential substances are rejects during the trials.
What does it mean if a drug is described as addictive?
It is a physical need for that drug and if they don't get it they have withdrawal symptoms.
What are the three classes of illegeal drugs in the UK? Give an example of a drug from each of the three classes.
Class A drugs - Heroin, LSD, Ecstasy and cocaine.
Class B drugs - Amphetamines (speed)
Class C drugs - Cannabis, anabolic steroids and tranquillisers.
State some changes in behaviour that can be caused by drugs.
It slows responses, reactions and will cause poor judgement of speed and distances.