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43 Cards in this Set

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centromere
a region of the chromosome where the 2 sister chromatids are held together & which is the site of attachment of the chromosome to the spindle fibers during mitosis
diploid
a cell that contains both chromosomes of a homologus pair
histone
a protein molecule that DNA wraps around during chromosome formation
karotype
a picture of an individulas chromosomes
anapahse
a phase of mitosis & meiosis in which the chromosomes seperate
cell cycle
the events of cell division; includes interphase, mitosis, and cytokenisis
centriole
a structure that appears during mitosis in animal cells
cleavage furrow
the area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually seperates the dividing cell
Go phase
a phase of the cell cycle in which the cell is not dividing & its DNA is not replicating
G2 phase
the final period of interphase, in which the cell undergoes rapid growth and prepares mitosis
kintochore
a disk-shape protein found in the centromere region of a chromosome and attaches the cchromosomes to the mitotic spindle fiber
metaphase
the 2nd phase of mitosis during which all the chromosomes move toward the cells equator
mitotic spindle
the array of spindle fibers that serve to divide the chromatids during nuclear division
prophase
the 1st stage of mitosis & meiosis characterized by condensation of chromosomes
spindle fiber
one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaroytic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
asexual reproduction
the production of offspring that does not involve the union of gametes
gamete
a reproductive cell
oogenesis
the production of mature egg cells
sexual reproduction
the production of offspring from the combination of genetic material from two parent organisims
autosome
a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
sex chromosomes
a chromosome that determines sex
binary fission
an asexual cell division of prokaroyes that produces identical offspring
homologus chromosome
one of a pair of morphologically similar chromosomes
chromatid
1 or 2 identical pairs of a chromosome
haploid
having only one chromosome of each homologus pair
m phase
mitosis; the phase of cell division in which the nucleus divides
s-phase
the second period of interphase during which the replication of DNA occurs
meiosis
the process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell by 1/2
G1 phase
the 1st period of interphase, in which the cell doubles its size
centrosome
a dark body containing a centriole in animal cells bunt not in plant cells; spindle fibers radiate from the centrosome in preparation for mitosis
cell plate
a membrane that divides newly forming plant cells following mitosis
cytokenisis
the division of the cyptoplasm of 1 cell into 2 new cells
interphase
a period of cell growth & development that procedes eukaryotic cell division
mitosis
eukaryotic nuclear division
telophase
the final stage of mitosis during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
crossing-over
the exchange of genes by preciprocal segments of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
spermatogenesis
the production of sperm cells
independent assortment
during meiosis, the random distribution of genes from different chromosomes to the gametes
polar body
one of the two small cells produced and discarded during each of the two meiotic divisions that yield the haploid egg
tetrad
a group of two homologous chromosomes during meiosis
spermatid
in meiosis, a haploid cell that develops into a mature sperm cell
synapsis
the paring of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
kinotochore fiber
a spindle fiber that extends from the centrosome at one pole of the cell to a chromatid during mitosis