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46 Cards in this Set

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Anaphase
a phase of mitosis and meosis in which the chromosomes separate
asexual reproduction
the production of offspring that does not involve the union of gametes
autosome
a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
binary fision
an asexual cell division of prokaryots that produces identical offspring
cell cycle
the events of cell division
cell plate
a membrane that divides newly forming plant cells following mitosis
centriole
a structure that appears during mitosis in animal cells
centromere
a region of the chromosome where the two sister chromatids are held together and which is the site of attachment of the chromosome to the spindle fibers during mitosis
centrosome
a dark body containing a centriole in the animal cells but not in plant cells; spindle fibers radiate from the centrosome in preparation for mitosis
chromatid
one of the two identical parts of a chromosome
cleavage furrow
the area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell
crossing-over
the exchange of genes by the reciprocal segments of homologous chromosomes during meosis
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm of one cell into two new cells
diploid
a cell that contains both chromosomes of a homologous pair
gamete
a reproductive cell
genetic recombination
the new mixture of genetic material after crossing-over has taken place
g0 phase
a phase of the cell cycle in which the cell is not dividing and its DNA is not replicating
g1 phase
the first period of interphase in which the cell doubles its side
g2 phase
the final period of interphase in which the cell indergoes rapid growth and prepares for mitoss
haploid
having only one chromosome for each homologous pair
histone
a protein molecule that DNa wraps around during chromosome formation
homologous chromosome
one pair of morphologically similar chromosomes
Independent assortment
during meosis, the random distribution of genes fron different chromosomes to the gametes
interphase
aperiod of cell growth and development that precedes eukaryotic cell nuclear division
karyotype
a picture of an individuals chromosomes
kinetochore
a disk-shaped protein found in the centromere region of the chromosome that attaches to the chromosomes to the mitotic spindle
kinetochore fiber
a spindle fiber that extends fron the centrosome at one pole of the cell to a chromatic during mitosis
meiosis
the process of a nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell by half
metaphase
the second phase of mitosis, during which all the chromosomes move to the cells equator
mitosis
eukaryotic nuclear division
mitotic spindle
the array of spindle fibers that serve to civide the chromatics during nuclear division
M phase
mitosis; the phase of cell division in which the nucleus divides
oogenesis
the production of mature egg cells
polar body
one of two small cells produced and discarded during each of the two meiotic divisions that yeild the haploid egg
prophase
the first stage of mitosis and meiosis
polar fiber
fibers that extenc adross a dividing cell from centrosome to centrosome
sex chromosome
a chromosome that determines sex
sexual reproduction
the production of offspeing from the combination of genetic material fron the two parent organisms
spermatid
im meiosis, a haploid cell that develops into a mature sperm cell
spermatogenis
the production of sperm cells
S phase
the secont period of interphase in which the replication of DNA occurs
spindle fiber
one of the microtubules that extencs across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
synapsis
the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
telophase
the final stage of mitosis during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
tetrad
a group of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
telophase
the fourth stage of mitosis