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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell theory
states that all organism are composed of cells, cells are the structural and functional unit of organisms, cells come only from preexisting cells
compound light microscopes
use light rays focused by glass lenses
transmission electron microscopes
use electrons passing through specimen, focused by magnets
function of wavelength
minimum distance between two objects at which they can still be seen as separate objects
minimum distance between two objects at which they can still be seen as separate objects
Immunofluoresence microscopy
uses fluorescent antibodies to reveal proteins in cells
confocal microscopy
uses laser beam to focus on a shallow plane within a cell, computer can create a 3D image from these
video enhanced contrast microscopy
accentuates the light and dark regions and may use a computer to contrast regions with false colors
Different types of light microscopes
bright field, phase contrast, differential interference, darkfield
Prokaryotic cells
lack a nucleus, smaller than eukaryotic cells, bacteria and archaea
Three shapes of bacteria
spherical coccus, rod-shaped bacillus, spiral spirillum
increase the internal surface area of the membrane for enzyme attachment
organized and not easily removed
slime layer
not organized and easily removed
semifluid solution containing water, inorganic and organic molecules, and enzymes
region that contains the single, circular DNA molecule
small accesory rings of DNA, not part of the bacterial genetic material
particles with two RNA and protein containing subunits that synthesize proteins
inclusion bodies
cytoplasm are granules of stored substances
bacteria that photosynthesize, lack chloroplasts but have thylakoids containing chlorophyll and other pigments
sex pili
tubes used by bacteria to pass DNA from cell to cell
eukaryotic cells
much bigger than prokaryotes, includes fungi, protists, plants, and animals, nucleus
plant and animal cells
plant cells
threadlike material that coils into chromosomes just before cell division occurs, contains DNA, RNA and some proteins
semifluid medium of the nucleus
rodlike structures formed during cell division,
dark region of chromatin inside the nucleus,
endomembrane system
series of intracellular membranes that comparmentalize the cell,
Rough ER
studded with ribosomes on the cytoplasm side, proteins are sythesized and enter the ER interior for processing and modification
Smooth ER
lacks ribosomes, various synthetic process, detoxification, and storage
membrane-bounded vesicles produced by the Golgi apparatus, contain powerful digestive enzymes and are highly acidic,
programmed cell death
membrane bounded vesicles that contain specific enzymes
mebranous sacs and are larger than vesicles, store substances
membranous organelles that serve as the site of photosynthesis
network of connected filaments and tubules, extends from the nucleus to plasma membranes in eukaryotes
Actin filaments
play a structural role, consists of two chains of globular actin monomers twisted to form a helix, move by interacting with myosin
Intermediate filaments
rope like assemblies of fibrous polypeptides, support nuclear envelope, support plasma membrane and form cell to cell junctions
composed of globular protein tubulin, main MTOC is called centrosome
short cylinders with a ring pattern of microtubule triplets, basal bodies for cilia and flagella
short, usually hairlike projections that can move in an undulating fashion
longer, usually fewer projections that move in whip-like fashion
Fluid- mosaic model
plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer, in which protein molecules are embedded- scattered throughout membrane in an irregular pattern
non- polar tails
hydrophobic, directed inward
polar heads
lipid found in animal plasma membranes, stiffens and strengthens the membrane
structure similar to phospholipids except the hydrophilic head is a variety of sugar
attached carbohydrate chain of sugar that protects externally
channel proteins
allow a particular membrane to cross freely
carrier proteins
selectively interact with a specific molecule so it can cross the plasma membrane
cell recognition proteins
glycoproteins that allow the body's immune system to distinguish between foreign invaders and body cells
receptor proteins
shaped so a specific molecule can bind to it
enzymatic proteins
carry out specific metabolic reactions
active transport
requires a carrier protein and uses energy (ATP) to move molecules across a plasma membrane
movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration
usually a solid
usually a liquid
diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane
strength of a solution with respect to osmotic pressure
isotonic solution
occurs when the relative solute concentrations of two solutions are equal
hypotonic solution
solute concentration that is less than another solution, water enters the cell and it may undergo cytosis (cell bursting)
turgor pressure
swelling of a plant cell in a hypotonic solution, plants maintain an erect position
hypertonic solution
solution has a solute concentration that is higher than another solution, when a cell is placed in this is shrivels
shrinking of cytoplasm due to osmosis in a hypertonic solution,
facilitated transport
transport of a specific solute down or with its concentration gradient, facilitated by a carrier protein
active transport
transport of a specific solute across plasma membranes up or against its concentration gradient through use of cellular energy (ATP)
vesicle formed by the Golgi apparatus fuses with the plasma membrane as secretion occurs,
cells take in substances by vesicle formation as plasma membrane pinches off by either phagocytosis, pinocytosis, or receptor mediated
cells engulf large particles, forming an endocytic vesicle, ambeiod type cells
occurs when vesicles form around a liquid or very small particles
receptor-mediated endocytosis
occurs when specific macromolecules bind to plasma membrane receptors
single point of attachment between adjacent cells connects the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells
glycoproteins that provide a packing gel that joins the various proteins in matrix and most likely regulate signaling proteins