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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
2 girls is 1/2
1/2 x 1/2 =
Genotype =
The alleles for a trait
ex. AA, Aa, aa
Hybrid =
ex. Tt
Homozygous =
Same alleles in a pair
ex. TT or tt
Monohybrid Cross ex. =
Tt = Tt
Test Cross ex. =
TT x tt, or Tt x tt
Dihybrid Crosses ex. =
TtGg x TtGg
Possible gametes from TtGg
4. TG, Tg, tG ,tg
Possible gametes from TTGG
1, TG
Possible gametes from TTGg
2, TG, Tg
Human Blood type (ABO system) =
Multiple alleles
AB blood type shows Codominance of both...
A and B alleles
Traits on the X chromosome that are not on the Y are called...
Genes are made up of....
Watson and Crick's Model:
2 strands of nucleotides, A-T and C-G pairs, strands twisted into a helix, strands held by weak bonds
Linked traits are located where?
Close together on the same chromosome
The genetic information is coded on messenger RNA (mRNA) that moves from....
Nucleus to Ribosome
Definition of Dominance
T or t, tallness is dominated to shortness
Definition of Segregation
In Meiosis, pairs of alleles, they separate so each gamete bets one allele for each trait
Definition of Independent Assortment
Traits will separate from each other genes on separate chromosomes separate independent of one another
DNA is...
double stranded
What is the complementary strand if one of the strands is A C T G A C T T G
DNA can be decoded to mRNA in transcription. Decode this DNA to mRNA triplets:
Using a genetic code, translation decodes the mRNA trplets to amino acids
Use chart supplied
mRNA to Amino Acids =
What is an adaptation?
Whatever is necessary for survival
Natural Selection =
Most advantageous adaptations will live to reproduce
Selection can be artificial (pigeon breeding), but showed Darwin what?
That natural selection and evolution have occurred in the past
In a forest, life forms in each layer to show what?
That adaptations permit organisms to use a variety of limited resources.
The principle of natural selection was discovered by separately who?
Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace
Natural selection can be seen in what organism and why?
It can be seen in Insects that blend with their background and survive to reproduce at rates that are higher than those that have contrasting colors, and so are eaten by birds.
Tortoise shells show a variety of shapes. What could happen if food conditions could favor one shape?
It could lead to the evolution and increase of certain shapes, and decrease of other less advantageous shapes.
What are some sources that cause genetic variation in a population?
Mutations, crossing over, segregation with random recombination
What is some evidence of evolution?
Major source of evidence is the fossil record.
Punctuated Equilibrium (speed of evolution) =
Rapid, following long periods of stability and extinctions
Gradualism =
Darwin's view, slow, continuous change
Adaptive Radiation =
One population branches out and new species appear
Parallel Evolution =
Evolution due to similar selection pressure
Coevolution =
One species influences another species in evolution
What are the conditions of a population in equilibrium (not evolving)?
No migration in or out (No gene flow)
No natural selection for any traits
Mating is random
No genetic drift (no disasters that could wipe out large numbers)
No mutations
Statement of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
There is variation in populations.
More offspring are produced that can survive.
There is a struggle for survival because resources are limited.
Some adaptations give individuals an advantage in the struggle for survival.
Those with favorable adaptations will survive and produce more offspring (carrying that trait) than those that lack the trait.
Taxonomists =
Biologists who classify plants, animals, and other organisms.
Structural homologies (similarities):
ex. Humans are very much like chimpanzee
ex. Members of same genus and species are most alike structurally
Definition of Species
Can and do breed in native surroundings, producing fertile offspring.
Taxonomic categories (from most general to most specific):
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
How are scientific names written?
The Genus is capitalized, the species is lower cased, italicized or underlined.
ex. Felis familiaris, Felis leo, Felis concolor are all in the same Genus but distinct species.
Which has its DNA in a true nucleus? Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Which has membrane bound organelles? Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Which undergoes mitosis?
Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Which makes up the kingdom Monera?
Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Which includes the primitive cells called archeobacteria?
Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Which has no nucleus?
Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Which lacks membrane bound organelles?
Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Which has a mitochondria and lysosomes?
Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Which are plants, animals, fungi, and protists?
Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Experiments that stimulate conditions on-earth use what to represent lightning as an energy source?
High-voltage sparks
Heterotroph hypothesis =
The first organisms on earth were not able to produce their own food (They were not autotrophs).
Earliest organisms were probably anaerobic =
Lived in environments with no oxygen
Autotrophs evolved...
resulting in free oxygen, ozone layer, emergence of multicelled organisms
The prokaryotes include primitive bacteria called archaebacteria (ancient bacteria). These include...
Methanogens (produce methane)
Halophiles (use salt)
Thermoacidophiles (hot, acidic environments)
Pathogens =
Organisms that cause disease in other organisms.
To confirm a pathogen as a disease-causer, it helps if...
It can be found in the disease victim.
Virulence of pathogens =
Gets into host easily, grows and spreads quickly, amount and type of toxin.
Viruses have (blank) and can (blank) in the host cell.
nucleic acids, reproduce
Viruses have no (blank), do not carry out (blank), do not feed or grow.
organelles, metabolism
Some common disease-causing viruses we heard about in class:
SARS, HIV, Influenza, Rabies, West Nile Encephalitis, Polio (Salk Vaccine), Ebola, Smallpox (Jenner Vaccine), CJD (Mad Cow), Chicken Pox, and Measles
Some disease-causing bacteria that we heard about in class:
Streptococcus, Plague-Yersinia pestis, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Cholera, Tuberculosis, Most STD's, Botulism, Salmonella, Helicobacter pylori (ulcers)
Useful for making bacterias:
Cheese, Yogurt, etc.
Bilateral -
Means it has a definite right and left side.
Ex: human, frog, fish, arthropods, etc.
Radial -
Organized like a whell, no right or left side.
Ex: Cnidarians (jellyfish, coral), Starfish, etc.
Taxonomic groups -
Place them in order from Kingdom to Species
Examples of Arthropods -
This phylum includes insects, crustaceans, chelicerates (spiders / arachnids)
Segmented Body? -
Annelids such as earthworms (Yes)
Round and Flatworms (No)
Arthropods (Yes)
Arthropods have...
jointed appendages and exoskeletons.
They are also the (blank) group of living species.
An insects three body sections are called...
Head, Thorax, and Abdomen
Phylum Chordata -
The chordates with backbones are vertebrates
Chordates include:
Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals
Sharks differ from other fish because...
Their skeletons are made of cartilage, rather than bone.
Mammals such as....
Bears, humans, bats, and dogs (hair, mammary glands, warm blooded-constant internal temperature)
Birds and mammals share:
Constant internal temperature, 4 chambered heart, internal fertilization