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122 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are some components of open and closed systems
Fluid: hemolymph/blood
Pump: heart, extrinsic muscles, contracting vessels
Pathways: blood vessels, channels, cavities
In an open system, hemolymph is found where?
Circulating in sinuses or open cavities and outside blood vessels.
Annelid worms do not have a hearts, how do they move their blood in their systems?
They pump blood thru peristalsis, dorsal blood moves anterioly and ventral blood moves posteriorly.
Do anneldids have a closed or open system?
closed system
How do closed systems affect pressure and velocity
Pressure is higher and velocity is hgher in this circulatory system.
A bivalve mollusk has an open circulation how does blood flow?
Blood flows from heart to aorta to sinus foot where it circulates around, blood vessels are open ended in this animal
How do open systems affect pressure and velocity?
These systems have a lower pressure and lower velocity
Vertebrates have what kind of circulation and what kind of pathways can they have?
These animals have a closed circulation and can have a single or double pathways
Anatomy of heart in a fish
1 atrium and 1 ventricle
Anatomy of a heart in an amphibian
2 atrium and 1 ventricle
Anatomy of a heart in crocs/birds/mammals
2 atria and 2 ventricles
Which part of the heart receives blood? pumps blood?
The atria (___ blood)
The ventricles (____blood)
Explain how a single cirucatlor pathway works and where it can be found?
In this circulatory pathway, blood flows from the ventricles to the gills (brachial circulation) to systemic to atrica, repeat.

This can be found in fish
Explain how a double circulatory pathway works
In this type of circulatory pathway, blood flows from RV (pulmonary artery) to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) to the LA to LV to systemic (aorta) to the RA to RV and repeats
Which side of the heart contains Deoxygenated blood? Which side of the heart contains oxygenated blood?
The right side of the heart contains ____ blood.
Left side of the heart contains____ blood.
How does the heart of a teloest fish work?
In this type of fish: Blood from the system enters the sinus venous that collects deOx blood, blood flows to the Atrium, when the atrium contracts, the ventricle relaxes and fills with blood, when the ventricle contracts, blood is sent out to the bulbus arterious to the gills
What is the role of spongy myocardium in the ventricle of a teleost fish?
In the teleost fish, this is reponsible to allow blood to flow between its spaces to feed and oxygenate the heart
Why is the ventricle much more thicker than the atrium in the teleost fish
in the teleost fish, this is much thicker because it has to pump blood through the system.
What is happening during diastole?
During this phase, the ventricles are not contracting, and the ventricles are filled with blood
What is happening during systole?
During this phase, the ventricles are relaxing, moving blood out of the ventricles.
Explain blood circulation during diastole?
Blood circulation during this phase, is moving Deoxygenated blood through RA to RV, then oxygenated blood is moved to the left side
What is the role of systole and muscles and what does it do for blood what does it contract?
Muscle ridges contract to physicall move blood between right and left side.
Why is there a blood shunt w/in the ventricle? 3 reasons
This is why this happens in the ventricle:
1. in reptile hearts there is an inocmplete horizontal septum
2. a relaxation of muscle ridges
3. constriction of pulmonary or aortic vessels.
How does blood shunt from right and left ventricles?
3 reasons
Pulmonary arch constricts and muscle ridge relaxes somewhat and deoxygenated blood enter the left ventricle
Explain circulation in a mammalian heart?
In a mammalian heart, blood (deoxygenated) enters the superior vena cava to the RA to RV, then to the lungs via the pulmonary artery, then it enters the LA to the LV back to the systemi via systemic aort and back to the superior venacava.
What is cardiac output (equation) and how can it be affected.
(mL/min or L/min)
Cardiac output is the heart rate times stroke volume. It can be affected by metabolic changes
How does volume change in cardiac output?
This changes in cardiac output by how forcefully ventricles contract.
Cardiac output in humans:
at rest?
At this phase cardiac output in humans is 70 x 70, about ~5L/min.

At this phase cardiac output is about 200 (hr) by 140 (stroke volume) about ~28L/min
During activity, birds (endotherms in general) tend to increase _____ to increase cardiac output but decrease _____
This animals increase heart rate to increase cardiac output but decrease stroke volume
During activitey, fish tend to increase _________ to increase cardiac output and don't increase as much________
These animals increase stroke volume to increase cardiac output but don't increase heart rate as much.
In a human, when cardiac output is increased, most is sent where?
When cardiac output is _______ in humans most is sent to muscles.
Can invertebrates have open and closed circulatory systems, give examples?
Yes, closed are to annelids and cephalopd mollusks and open are most invertebrates like arthropods, decapods crustaceans, insects.
Explain the circulation in a cephalopod mollusks and it's hemocyanin
Circulation in this invertebrate goes from the blood to the system heart to they systemic tissues to the branchial hearts back to the gills
How does a cephalopod mollusks' circulation similar to that of mammals?
The left side of the mammalian heart is like the systemic heart side of this invertebrate and the right side of the heart is like the branchial heart of this invertebrate.
What is hemocyanin where is it found and what can it do
This respiratory pigment, it is found in extracelluar, in plasma, and can increase velocity
Is a decapods crustaceans eg lobster, an open or closed system and where is hemolymph found
This invertebrates system is open and this is found continously in interstitual fluid.
How does the heart of decapod crustacean relax and contract?
During contraction of this invertebrate, the heart pulls on the suspensory ligaments. During relaxation the suspensory ligaments pulls on the heart and hemolymph is drawn in.
Is pressure and resistance low or high in open systems and why?
Pressure and resistance is low in open systems because they don't have any blood vessels to go through so there's not much pressure.
How does blood flow in insects?
In these invertebrates blood is moved by persitaltic waves going from posterior to anterior along the dorsal vessel.
How is hemolymph redirected in to different areas of the insect?
Hyemolphy is "directed" in these invertebrates by barriers like septa/baffles.
Does hemolymph in invertebrates have a respiratory pigment, why?
Hemolymph does not have a respiratory pigment in these because Ox is carried through tracheal tubes throughout the body.
Where is oxygen stored in marine mammals?
Oxygen stored in hgb, mgb, and lungs
Compare N2 and depth?
As depth increases more outside pressure increases, and n2 gradient increases so more n2 will diffuse into tissues.
What is the role of n2 in blood flow?
N2 bubble block blood flow.
Where do seals carry more O2 compared to humans?
Seals carry o2 in mgb and muscles, while humans carry more o2 in lungs and blood
What type of ATP synthesis do seals rely on while submerged?
Seals rely on areobic ATP synthesis while submerged
During dives of seals, what is regulated and sent to what specific areas?
During this activity O2 is regulated and sent to different tissues for example brain and heart.
What do muscles rely on during submerged seals?
Muscles of submerged seals rely on internal stores of O2
What is Bradycardia? What is Tachycardia?
This is low Heart Raate and the other is high Heart Rate
As a diving duration increases what happens to heart rate and cardiac output?
When the diving duration is ______ heart rate drops and cardia output drops.
During dives of seals, why is it that arterial o2 doesn't decrease as much as muscle o2?
Arterial o2 doesn't decreases as much because it is being sent to the heart and brain.
Explain the role of lactic acid during dives
The longer the duration of a dive the more lactic acid is accumulated in muscles
What happens when a seal resurfaces? 4 things
Tachycardia occurs, peripheral vasodilation occurs, and lactic acid is increased in the blood to be flushed aways as pyruvic acid. Muscle o2 restored.
During dives, respiratory centers are less sensitive to these and reduces the urge to do this
these are ____ sensitive to CO2 and Ph and reduces the urge to breathe
What is Osmoregulation?
Maintenance of homeostatic levels of water and solutes.
What is Osmoconformity?
Allow tissue osmolarity to approximate ambien conditions (regulation)
Which animals are osmoregulators? Which are osmoconformers? Which can use both?
Vertebrates are osmoregulators and sharks can be osmoconformers, marine invertebrates can use both
What is the Isosmotic Line? Which marine invertebrates use this the most.
The isosmotic line represents the equality of osmotic pressure of blood plasma and ambient osmotic pressure; mussels use this
In osmoregulators what remains the same?
Blood osmolarity remains constant ex. shrimp
Name the compartments in animal tissues and explain each?
extracellular fluid
-blood plasma
-interstitual fluid: fluid between cells
-Fluid within cells
In the compartments of animal tissues which "fluid" which percentage of water content has the highest, lowest?
The highest is intracellular about 50%
The lowest is blood plasma about 5-10% and intersitual fluid contains about 40-45%
Although ion concentrations inside and outside indiviual animal cells are about the same, they can have
different ionic compositions and similar osmolarities
What are the salinity/osmolarity differences between aquatic environments
Marine there is a high salinity/high osmolarity
Estuarine (brackish) there is a mix
Freshwater there is a low salinity/low osmolarity
Explain salinity/osmolarity in Walker Lake
In Walker Lake it is without an influx of water and animals are not thriving?/******************
What does it mean where an animal has an adaptation to water stress?
It is the animals ability to acquire water and conserve it and tolerate dehydration
Freshwater animals must do what in their environment
They must excrete water and save solutes, they have to deal with dilution, concentration of solutes about ~50
Marine animals must do what in their environment
Excrete excess solutes and conserve water, they have to deal with dehyrdation, concentration of solutes about ~1000
Terresterial animals must do what in their environment
Their solute concentration varies, and have to adapt to dehydration, so they need to conserve water and excrete solutes
How do Kangaroon rats, obtain water?
kangaroo rats obtain water mostly by metabolic water and dry water that's in the seeds they eat. They do not drink water.
How do Kangaroo Rats lose their water?
Kangaroo Rats lose their water mostly by evaporation and perspiration? They lose water also by urine and a small amount through fecal
How does the loop of henle in a kangaroo rat differ from other's say in a more "wet" environmnet
The loop of henle is extra long to help in conserving more water, there is a countercurrent exchange of water/solutes along the length of the loop of henle
****In freshwater fish, salt is lost thru where and water is picked up where. What kind of exhanges are these with the environment?
Salt is lost through the gills and water is picked up through the gills. This is a pasive exchange with the environment.
****In freshwater fish is there a higher [solute] in the fish or in the environmnet?
There is a higher [solute] in the fish
****In plasma of freshwater fish what two solutes are high and what two are low?
In plasma Na and Cl are high and Ca and K are low
****In water, what two solutes are high and what two are low?
In water Na and Cl are high and Ca and Cl are low.
****In freshwater fish, between the environment and the fish, Na and Cl are lost at high rates, why?
They are lost at high rates because, in fish plasma, there are high Na and Cl concentrations and in water it is low. because diffusion takes place down the gradient, na and cl are lost at high rates but then regained through the gills (same way they are lost)
****How does water move into tissues?
It moves into tissues by osmosis
****In freshwater fish how is the water concentration of urine? Do they produce lots of urine?
IT is very dilute, yes they produce lots of urine to excrete water.
****What structures in the gills allow an active uptake of Na and CL?
Extra-renal salt glands.
*****What is the role of extra-renal salt glands?
Extra-renal salts glands in freshwater fish help fish uptake Na and Cl, most salt is lost thru diffusion.
****why does the uptake of NaCl cost ATP?
It requires active co-transport (ATP) because NA and CL are against it concentration gradient when a fish uptakes it.
****In freshwater fish, CL exchanges for what? and Na exchanges for what?
CL exhcanges for HCO3 and NA for H+
****In marine fish do they have a higher [solute] or lower [solute] in there tissues.
Marine fish have a lower [solute], hyposmotic
****What is the mOsm in freshwater and marine water.
In marine water it is about 1000 mOsm and in freshwater it is about 50 mOsm, and in the fish it is about 300 mOsm for both.
****In marine fish is there urine [] dilute or concentrated and how is it compared to plasma?
In marine fish there urine [] is concentrated and the small amts of urine produced are isosmotic to plasma.
**** Extra renal salt glands in marine fish help do what?
ERSG in marine fish help to actively excrete Na and Cl because they are continually gained through there gills.
****Marine sharks are hyperosmotic or isosmotic to their environment
Marine sharks are almost isosmotic 1070 mOsm but they are still slightyly hyperosmotic to water.
****how do they solve dehyrdation and what do they have to deal with?
They solve dehydration by maintaing a high tissue osmolarity by taking up Urea but deal with losing salt gain through the kidneys
****how do marine sharks uptake water? like other fish
Becasue they are hyperosmotic to water, water will flow from the environment to the fish (gills)
****Marine sharks have rectal glands (extra renal salt glands) there instead, why?
They have it terhe because assit kidneys in NaCl gained by diffusion from the gills.
****Salt glands in marine birds have a solution that is_________ to sea water?
****What is the U/P (index of renal carrying capacity) in freshwater vertebrates and marine/desert mammals?
Urine osmoloarity/Plasma osmoloarity

In Freshwater vertebrates it's lets than 1 U/P and in marine desert mammals it's over
****If U/P [] is less than 1 what happens to water?
If it is less than one, it is hyposomtoc to plasma, water is excreted.
****If U/P is greater than 1, what happens to water?
If it's greater than,it is hyperosmot. to plasma, and water is retained.
****In sharks, what helps compensate because they are hyperosmotic yet hypotonic to the environment
Urea and TMAO help water be retained even though they are hypersomotic, and Na and CL make up more than half of their tissues and so does Urea and TMAO
****Do sharks and fish/amphibians,/repties have a loop of henlse.
No because they are have U/P of 1 or less and they are in 'wet" environments
****Do birds/mammals have aloop of henle and what is their U/P
U/P in birds is about 2-3, they have a loop of henle and salt glands. U/P in mammals ranges from 2-30, they have loop of henle and no salt glands because they kidnesy help
#6: Vertebrate kidneys help do what?
Help regulate the composition and volume of blood
What do kidneys produce that contains what?
They produce urine that contains excell electrolytes, metabolic byproducts and water
How much cardiac output do mammilian kidneys receive?
about 25%
What are nephrons?
Nephrons are tubules in the renal pyramid that are responsible for filtrating, reabsorbing and secreting solutes
Many species that are in xeric environments have many of these because?
They have many juxtamedullary nephrons because they are good at conserving water.
Where is the initial filtration occuring in the kidney
It occurs in Bowman's capsule in the glomuerulus where solution (blood) is filtered.
What are the three main processes of urine production?
1. plasma filtrate
2. reabsorption
3. secretion
What happens during the first process of urine production, Plasma filtration? What's one solute that can't move in?
During plasma filtration, solution of water and small solutes move into the capsule from the vessel through hydrostatic pressure. Proteins
What happens during the second process of urine production, reabsorption in the proximal CT
Nutrients that end up in the nephron tubule are reabsorped in tubule, all glucose, fatty acids, and aa are conserved.
What happens during the third process of urine production, secretion
Anytype of final adjustments that need to be made to urine, for example hormones, or adjusting blood pH
Osmotic pressure in kidney is highest at what area? and lowest at what area? why?
Osmotic pressure in the kidney is highest at the medulla's inner zone. And lowest at the cortex because it helps kidneys to conserve water.
What are the main interstitial solutes, around nehpron tubules?
Na, Cl, and Urea
Where in the nephron tubules is Urea at it's highest/lowest? What about Na, what about Cl?
Urea is highest at the medulla's inner zone, and lowest at the cortex, same for Na and Cl.
In human kidneys what is the amount of Na and CL and URea that make up the total 1200 mOsm of the kidneys
Na and CL about 600 and Urea about 600
In the kidneys fluids and solutes are matched between intracellularly and extracellulary without and help?
Disrupting metabolism just to help increase osmolarity to help match outside and inside of cell.
In the loop of Henle, water reabsorption occurs here due to what?
Water is reabsorped in the loop of henle because it is located at the inner zone of the medulla, there is a high concentration gradient, so H2O moves from low to high and water gets reabsorbed 300-1200 mOsm
How does the loop of Henle differ in a desert dwelling sand rat compared to humans?
In a desert dwelling sand rat, the mOsm is much higher 6100 in the inner zone therefore there is a much higher increase of water reabsoprtion U/P is about 20.4
How does urine concentration correlate with medulla thickness (loop of henle longer)?
As medulla is thicker loop of henle is longer, urine concentration is higher, water is conserved more.
Do reptiles have a loop, fish, amphibians of henle?
No they don't they don't need it to conserve water, because they are fairly well hydrated.
compare Arid/mesic/aquatic medulalry thickness of animals?
Arid have thicker medulla's and longer loops of henle...while aquatics have thinner and shorter loops of henle.
U/P increases, what is increasing the value?
Urine osmolarity increases the value, a higher urine mOsm means a higher U/P index.
What is produces during deamination of amino acids and why must it be excreted?
Ammonia is produced and it must be excreted because it can disrupt cell metabolism
What are some types of Nitrogen excretion?
1. ammonontely-> ammonia
2. Ureotely-> urea
3. Uricotely-> uric acid
Between Amonia, urea, and uric acid which is more toxic? which takes up more energy to make/low energy? What takes more water and less water to make?
Ammonia is more toxic, ammonica requires less energy while uric acid takes up more energy, and ammonia needs more water to make and uric acid less water to make..Urea is inbetween
What kind of animals make ammonia, uric acid, urea?
Ammonia, fish/some amphibians. Uric acid: birds/reptiles. Urea: mammas, some amphibians.